Table of Content

    15 August 2014, Volume 34 Issue 3
    Duration selectivity of inferior collicular neurons within the dominant frequency of echolocation signal in Pratt’s roundleaf bat,Hipposideros pratti
    PENG Kang,WANG Jing,YANG Mingjian,LI Yulan,FU Ziying,TANG Jia,CHEN Qicai
    2014, 34(3):  209. 
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    In order to probe the duration selectivity of inferior collicular (IC)neurons within the dominant frequency (DF) of echolocation signals emitted by Pratt’s roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pratti),the present study was performed on the IC of 4 Pratt’s roundleaf bats. A total of 56 IC neurons were isolated using extracellular recording under free-field stimulation conditions. The ranges of recording depth,best frequency and minimum threshold of these IC neurons were 1547 - 3967μm(mean ± SD 2878. 9 ± 629. 1),20 -68 kHz (49. 0 ±11.1) kHz and 36. 5 -95. 5dB SPL (59. 8 ± 13. 0) dB SPL,respectively. The duration selectivity of these neurons was examined with sound stimuli of different durations and duration-selective neurons were classified into six types:short-pass (SP,n =11/ 56),band-pass (BP,n =1 /56),long-pass (LP,n = 5/56),band-reject (BR,n =3/56),multi-peak (MP,n = 6 /56)and all-pass (AP,n =30/56)neurons. By comparison of duration selectivity between the neurons within and outside the dominant frequency of echolocation signals,we found that neurons (n = 32)within the DF of echolocation signals had higher duration selectivity and shorter best duration than did those (n =24)outside of the DF of echolocation signal. Therefore,the results suggest that the neurons within DF play a more important role than those without DF during echolocating of Pratt’s roundleaf bat
    The study on group processing of Hipposideros pratti inferior colliculus to constant frequency component of echolocation signals
    XU Na,LI Juan,SHI Qing,FU Ziying,TANG Jia,CHEN Qicai
    2014, 34(3):  217. 
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    We investigated the responses of neuron groups in the inferior colliculus of Pratt’s leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pratti),during 500 -4 000 μm recording depth,to constant frequency components of three harmonics (CF1 - CF3 ),using auditory evoked potential combined with the computer averaging technique. The results showed that evoked potential waves included 2 -4 peaks under the given stimuli,and all exhibited on-off responses below the 1 000 μm recording depth. With increasing recording depth,the amplitudes of on-responses all reached maximum at 3 000 μm and then decreased(P <0.001),while the latencies decreased linearly (P < 0. 001);the off-responses triggered by CF2 had the largest amplitudes, while the amplitudes of off-responses evoked by CF1 and CF3 were smaller. The off-responses of CF2 (P <0.001)had linearly decreasing latencies,but the CF1 (P > 0. 05)and CF3 (P >0. 05)had no such linear change with the increased recording depth. The results reveal there were unanimous tendency of neuron groups’processing on-responses, indicating that the processing of the acoustic signals related to behavior may have complex interactions among frequency layers;and off-responses were sensitive to the frequency near the dominant frequency, suggesting that they may play a role in Doppler shift,capturing the fluttering of insects or communication of constant frequency-frequency modulation bats.
    The effect of rainfall and the degree of food availability on the timing of parturition of Cynopterus sphinx in Xishuangbanna,China
    YUE Xinke,GUO Xiong,YANG Songtao,TANG Zhanhui,FENG Jiang
    2014, 34(3):  225. 
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    Abstract:Animal reproductive activities are constrained by trade-offs between different natural selection pressures and their physiological limitations. Many abiotic factors including climate (temperature,photoperiod and rainfall)and abundance of plant species affect the reproductive activities of bats. We studied the effect of rainfall and the degree of food availability on the parturition timing of Cynopterus sphinx by measuring food resource availability and conducting marking-recapture on bats in Xishuangbanna. We found that average precipitation gradually increased from March to August (19. 82 - 41.13 kg /m2 ),and plant species fed on by bats increased (4 - 9 species)at the same time. There was a significant positive relationship between the number of captured sub-adult bats and the degree of food availbility (r = 0. 94, P = 0. 01). Although having the capacity of polyestrous and parturition twice a year,most of them were monoestrous and parturition once a year,which only occurred from March to May. The timing that sub-adults become volant and learn to forage corresponds to the peak phase of fruit availability,which facilitates to improve survival fitness of sub-adults.
    Effect of food size on feeding behavior of fruit bats Rousettus leschenaulti and Cynopterus sphinx
    SHAO Yonggang,LIU Zhixiao,LIU Qi,CHEN Yi,ZHANG Libiao
    2014, 34(3):  232. 
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    Based on the theory of optimization on foraging,animal should make trade-offs between the energy obtained and the predation risk. Frugivores demonstrate various foraging strategies and food selection patterns. They may choose food according to fruit size,color,and smell. Using experiments of size-based food selection,we tested whether fruit size affected the foraging behavior of fulvous fruit bats (Rousettus leschenaulti)and short-nosed fruit bats (Cynopterus sphinx)that were commonly seen in Guangdong Province. Four sizes of apple cubes (1 cm,2 cm,2. 5 cm,and 3 cm)were prepared and numbered from I to IV. The quantity,frequency,and time spent of cube ingestion by bats were recorded by camera trapping. Results showed that bats ingested higher quantities of medium-size cubes (types Ⅱ and Ⅲ)than those of other types,but they chose small size cubes (type I)more frequently than they did other types. Furthermore,they spent more time ingesting cubes of large size (type Ⅳ)when cubes were provided separately. We found that the fruit bats tended to carry small and medium-sized cubes back to their stops for ingestion during foraging,however they stayed at the location of cubes when they ate large cubes. In conclusion,bats apply different strategies when dealing with food of different sizes. We propose that both species of bats prefer the ‘takeout’strategy under trade-off between foraging risk and net energy income.
    Plasticity of echolocation call of Himalayan leaf-nosed bat in different situations and habitats complexities
    LI Yanli,SHAO Yonggang,LIU Zhixiao,LIU Qi, CHEN Yi, ZHANG Youxiang, ZHANG Libiao
    2014, 34(3):  238. 
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    Acoustic plasticity is important bats to adapt to different situations and habitats,as well as for foraging and social communication. To examine this ability in Himalayan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros armiger),echolocation calls from a total of 11 individuals were recorded both inside and outside of the laboratory. Specifically they were placed in artificial habitats with four levels of complexity,and also in four behavioral situations (i. e. held in hand,kept in bag,resting and free flying in door). The four artificial habitats were indoors with no-trees,one-trees or five-trees,and free-flying outdoors. Outdoors we recorded the calls while they were released in their natural habitat. The results showed that the Himalayan leaf-nosed bat emits CF-FM echolocation calls,in which normally continuous 2 - 4 pulses form a pulse group. When comparing the echolocation calls among four different behavioral situations,the dominant frequency was highest while resting lower when kept in bag,lower still when held in hand,and tlowest when free-flying indoors,while the frequency range of TFM was shortest when held in hand,followed by kept in bag and free flying indoors,and longest while resting. The pulse duration and inter-pulse intervals both increased during resting,free flying in door,kept in bag,and held in hand, respectively. When comparing the echolocation calls among free-flying bats in four habitats of different complexities,the dominant frequency being lowest outdoors, followed by indoors with no-trees,one-tree and five-trees,respectively,while the pulse duration and inter-pulse interval both decreased in the same order. The frequency range of TFM when the bats were released outoors was shorter than those when bats were flying indoors. These results indicate that the echolocation calls of Himalayan leaf-nosed bat have significant plasticity under different situations and habitat complexities,and are part of their environmental adaptation.
    Wing morphology,echolocation calls and emergence time of Pipistrellus abramus
    SHAO Weiwei,WEI Li,HU Kailiang,LIN Zhihua,ZHANG Libiao
    2014, 34(3):  245. 
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    In this study we investigated the wing morphology,variation in echolocation calls and emergence time of Pipistrellus abramus. Our results showed that P abramus has a high wing loading,low aspect ratio and medium/ high wing tip shape index. P. abramus produced frequency modulate (FM)calls with 1 -2 harmonics with the mean values of call duration and dominant frequency of P. abramus being 3.26 ms and 56.27kHz, respectively. For each call parameter,the coefficient of variation between-individual (CVb )was larger than that of within-individual (CVw). The timing of evening emergence
    was significantly different between months and was correlated with the time of sunset and air temperature. Combining our data with previous studies,we predict that characteristics of echolocation calls of P. abramus are correlated to recording position and foraging habitats. Meanwhile,timing of evening emergence varied between different geographical populations.This work should provide useful information in furthering our understanding of the characteristics of species-specific echolocation calls as well as choice of habitat types.
    Diversity and conservation of cave-dwelling bats in Henan Province,China
    BU Yanzhen,WANG Yanmei,LIU Wei,YU Yan,HE Xinping,PENG Tian,NIU Hongxing
    2014, 34(3):  252. 
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    A field survey on species diversity,number and distribution of cave-dwelling bats was conducted in 60 caves of Henan Province from June 2011 to July 2013. Bats were captured by using mist nets and hand nets. The number of bats was calculated with the method of direct counting and taking pictures. 3 families,6 genera and 17 species bats were identified according to external and skull characteristics. Among them,three species are listed as vulnerable (VU),seven are listed as near threatened (NT),and the remaining seven are listed as least concern (LC)in the China Species Red List. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. pusillus were widespread species in Henan Province. According to the exploitation situation of caves and frequency of human activities,the interference degree of these caves was estimated. Among the 60 caves,30 caves have been seriously disturbed,10 caves disturbed lightly and only 20 caves maintained in their natural state. According to bat species,numbers and degrees of endangerment,the roosts were evaluated and divided into four levels based on their conservation importance. Caves of level 1 and most level 2 are large and complex,which are breeding and hibernation roosts,featured by multiple variety and huge amount. The total length of passages,the maximal width and height of the 60 caves were measured and compared. The three measurement data of level 1 are obviously larger than other levels. Presently,most caves in the region are not preserved well. Cave-dwelling bats are under serious threat due to several reasons, such as cave exploitation for tourism.
    The genetic diversity and evolution of MHC classⅡ-DRB genes in Rhinolophus sinicus
    ZHAO Yunjiao,LI Dan,XU Yuzhuo,ZHU Yiran
    2014, 34(3):  262. 
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    Sixteen Rhinolophus sinicus individuals from the same population in Yunnan Province were investigated for DRB gene polymorphism and molecular evolution.Bat genomic DNA was extracted from the wing membrane. The DRB genes were cloned with PCR. From the 16 bats,two types of DRB sequences,A and B,with a 3 bp difference were identified: the type A sequence was determined to be 263 bp with 15 alleles;the type B sequence was determined to be 260 bp with 8 alleles. Among the 74 amino acid mutation loci analyzed,twelve positive selection loci were identified. The alleles with the
    highest distribution frequency were detected in 9 bats,while multiple alleles were detected in only a single bat. At the individual level,the maximum number of DRB alleles was determined to be 6. The DRB genes showed a higher level of polymorphism. There were at least 3 repeat loci in the MHCⅡ-DRB genes. Based on a phylogenetic tree derived from the DRB exon2 sequences published in Chiroptera,it was concluded that the Rhinolophus sinicus species constituted an independent branch in evolution.
    Preliminary study on population genetic structure and taxonomy of Elery’s tube-nosed bat (Murina eleryi)
    XU Zhongxian,YU Wenhua,WU Yi,LI Feng,CHEN Bocheng,Masashi HARADA,Masaharu MOTOKAWA,GONG Yuening,LI Yuchun
    2014, 34(3):  270. 
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    lery’s tube-nosed bat (Murina eleryi)is a small-sized bat that was recorded as a new species in 2009,and has external features that quite resemble the little tube-nosed bat (Murina aurata). We conducted a preliminary study on population genetic structure of M. eleryi in Guangdong with partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI)of mitochondrial DNA as a molecular marker. Morphologically,we have compared these 2 species and explored the external features and taxonomic status. Results showed that (1)M. eleryi in Guangdong clustered with ‘M. aurata’and there was little difference between the species;(2)the origin of M. eleryi in south China was not monophyletic,the population genetic structure disagreed with the geographical distribution patterns,and populations in Guizhou and Gaungdong shared closer phylogenetic relationships with Vietnamese and Laotian populations than with the Guangxi population;(3)Since the external and skull similarities of M. eleryi and M. aurata as well as the lag of identification of M. eleryi, many identified ‘M. aurata’in online database (e. g. ,NCBI and BOLD)and some published papers should be M. eleryi instead.
    Morphological and Cyt b sequence divergence of Hipposideros larvatus from Hainan and Guangxi Provinces,China
    ZHAO Lezhen,BU Yanzhen,HE Xinping,ZHOU Huixian,YU Yan,NIU Hongxing
    2014, 34(3):  278. 
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    The subdivision,distribution and effectiveness of Hipposideros larvatus subspecies are not yet clear. Domestic scholars hold different views To explore the morphological differences and subspecies differentiation of H. larvatus from different districts of China,17 external and 25 skull indicators of H. larvatus from Guangxi and Hainan Provinces were measured and analyzed by using SPSS 13. 0. Through Mega 5,their Cyt b gene sequences were compared. Principal components analyses and discriminant analyses indicated that there were distinct differences in both the external and skull measurements of H. larvatus, which was consistent with the result of Cyt b gene sequence alignment. In terms of six of 17 external characteristics,and ten out of 25 skull indicators,the number of discrepant individuals exceeded 75% . Sequence divergence of H. larvatus from the two provinces was 3. 7% - 4. 4%. These results showed that the variation of H. larvatus of the two provinces reached Subspecies classification levels in aspects of external,skull and Cyt b gene sequence. H. larvatus from Hainan and Guangxi Provinces should belong to different subspecies.
    Night roost selection by Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera:Pteropodidae) and characteristics of the tent
    LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,WONG Kaichin,CHEN Yi,ZHAO Jiao,SHAO Yonggang,SUN Yunxiao,KAN Honpio,LEI Chiioi,NG Chokhim,CHEN Min,ZHANG Libiao
    2014, 34(3):  286. 
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    Roosts are extremely important for the survival of bats,including night roosts used by bats between commuting feeding bouts during the nights. We compared the characteristics of 17 night roosts of short-nosed fruit bat,Cynopterus sphinx in the forest of Hesha Reservoir with those of 128 diurnal roosts distributed in urban district,Macao,China. The results indicate that significant differences arise in some parameters between night and diurnal roosts. The trees of diurnal roosts were higher than those of night roosts. Diurnal roost sites have higher intensity of human interference than night roost sites. We also compared the characteristics of night tents of C. sphinx with those of diurnal tents,the results indicated that the tent’s placement in the tree and the complexity under the tent of the night tents were significantly higher than those of diurnal ones. The area of night roost tents was smaller than that of diurnal ones. Distance between tents to the tree trunk also was significantly different between night and diurnal roosts. We conclude that the differences in functions of these two roost sites contributes to the differences in roost selection strategies.
    New bat record from Guangdong Province in China — Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840)
    ZHANG Libiao,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,ZHU Guangjian,CHEN Yi,ZHAO Jiao,LIU Hui,SUN Yunxiao,GONG Yuening,LI Chaorong
    2014, 34(3):  292. 
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    Three bats (2 males and 1 female)were collected in Babao Mountain (24°55'43.4″N,113° 0′57. 0″E,1 000 ma.s.l),Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve,Guangdong Province,China in July,2013. These bats are middle size,with 40. 4 - 41. 6 mm forearm length,and 16. 0 -16. 1 mm greatest length of skull. The pelage was characteristic.On the dorsum,the basal hairs are black,with distinctive yellow-ferruginous and shiny tips. On the abdomen,the basal hairs are black and brown,with paler tips,and differ among throat,chest and abdomen. The tragus is broad with lunar to kidney shape. The margins of the ears and tragus are palm and pale color. These bats were identified as Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840),was and are the first records from Guangdong Province. Previous records suggested that this bat species was only found in Yunnan Province in China,and with very few specimens. The features of morphological structure and the skull of these specimens are given in this paper,and compared with specimens from Yunnan and SE Asia. We also recorded the echolocation calls of these bats,and discuss the taxonomy and distribution of this bat species in China. The specimens were kept in Guangdong Entomological Institute.
    Molecular phylogeography of bats in China
    LIN Aiqing,SUN Keping,FENG Jiang
    2014, 34(3):  298. 
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    Molecular phylogeography has grown explosively during the last twenty-five years and has been a pioneering field in evolution and ecology. The Chiroptera are characterized by special phenotypic traits and ecological attributes. Phylogeographical studies can shed light on the population genetic status,patterns of geographical distribution and corresponding causes in bats. This study summarizes molecular phylogeographical research on Chinese bats,especially focusing on the species studied,the methods used,the focal topics and the results achieved. We also address future directions for the field.
    Plasticity and ecological adaptability of bat echolocation calls
    LIN Hongjun,WANG Lei,FENG Jiang
    2014, 34(3):  307. 
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    Bat species adjust the acoustic characteristics of echolocation calls to meet the sensory demand,showing their acoustic plasticity and adaptability to the ecological environment. Frequency,intensity,pulse duration and interval characteristics are closely related to a bat’s niche,and acoustic plasticity in bats plays a vital role in the process of evolution. In this paper,combined with the recent research on echolocation acoustic plasticity of greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and big-footed myotis (Myotis macrodactylus),we summarize bat’s adjustment of echolocation acoustic characteristics to satisfy their sensory demand,and their ecological adaptability to implement navigation and capture prey from echolocation sound wave direction,target distance,environmental complexity and interference factors. We also illustrate the research status of echolocation acoustic plasticity. Our review lends theoretical support to further research on bats acoustics and ethology.
    Sexual size dimorphism in animals and the relative research in bats
    WU Hui,JIANG Tinglei,FENG Jiang
    2014, 34(3):  313. 
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    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD)is commonplace in the animal kingdom. SSD in a given species is expected to result if selective pressures on body size are stronger in one sex than another,or if selective processes push the two sexes in opposing directions. Rensch’s rule states a relationship between SSD and body size:SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex,and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Here,we review briefly some research progress and the variation patterns in SSD of animals,and summarize the SSD research in bats. Further studies are required to investigate why bats mostly exhibit female-biased SSD,and whether the variation in SSD conforms to Rensch’s rule.