Table of Content

    17 November 2014, Volume 34 Issue 4
    Preliminary observation of population status and social organization of Rhinopithecus strykeri in Pianma Town,Nujiang County,China
    LI Guangsong, CHEN Yixin, SUN Wenmo, WANG Xinwen, HUANG Zhipang, LI Yanpeng, XIANG Zuofu, DING Wei, XIAO Wen, LI Ming
    2014, 34(4):  323. 
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    From October 2011 to October 2013,preliminary observation on social organization of a group of Rhinopithecus strykeri was done in Pianma,Lushui County. Based on video data and direct counting in field work,the population of the study group is approximately 100 individuals. Sex-age of all individuals in the video was classified via body size,color and whether or not carrying newborn infant. Indentifying one male multi female and their offspring units (OMU)and all male unit (AMU)was decided based on sex-age and time interval of individuals across the opening forestry site. 22 OMUs and 1 AMU were found from all video records. The social organization of R. strykeri is similar to those found of other snubnosed monkey species,which is a Modular Society composed of several OMUs and one or two AMUs. According to location data collected by GPS,altitude range of the study group is from 1 900 - 3 700 m and the home area is approximately 12 km2 ,with higher population density (8 individuals/ km2 )than that reported in Myanmar (1.1 individuals/ km2 ).Population status was calculated by sex-age of all individuals:the ratio of adult male to adult female is 1∶2.1 ; infant to adult female is 1∶4. 7;and ratio of adult to immature is 2.5∶ 1. The study group exhibited higher adult to immature ratio and lower infant to adult female ratio,compared to R. bieti groups.
    High parental body mass can increase litter size,but has no effect on reproductive output and oxidative damage in Brandt’s voles
    WANG Tongliang, ZHANG Xueying, FU Rongshu, WANG Dehua
    2014, 34(4):  329. 
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    Body mass can affect almost all biological variables of animals. Parents with high body mass usually have large litter sizes. As a costly physiological process,reproduction is often accompanied by oxidative damage. The present study was designed to explore the effects of parental body mass on life history characteristics,reproductive output and oxidative damage. Adult Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)were divided into two groups:high (HBM:female,51. 5 g ±1. 6 g;male,60. 4 g ±2. 5 g)and low body mass (LBM:female,35.5 g ± 1. 2 g;male,49. 6 g ±2. 8 g). Parental body mass and energy intake during reproduction,litter size,litter mass,body composition,serum hormones (leptin and prolactin), and oxidative damage parameters (serum protein carbonyl, serum and liver MDA levels)were measured. The results showed:(1)At the end of pregnancy,the body mass gain in the HBM group was significantly greater than that of the LBM group.  (2)Litter size at birth in the HBM group was significantly greater than that of the LBM group,but there were no significant differences in pup mass,litter mass at birth or weaning and maternal energy intake during reproduction between the HBM and LBM groups. (3)No significant differences in serum leptin and prolactin,body composition,body fat,serum protein carbonyl,serum and liver MDA levels were detected between these two groups. These results suggested that Brandt’s voles with HBM give birth to more pups,but the mothers do not increase energy intake to support the added reproductive output. Thus,the parental body mass can affect the litter size at birth,but has no effect on reproductive output and oxidative damage. These findings are important for understanding energy strategies during reproduction,and life history theory of trade-offs between reproduction and survival in animal with different body masses.
    Relationship between overwintering preference and nutritional content of the foods of plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi)
    CUI Xuefeng, XIE Jiuxiang, ZHANG Shoudong, LIN Gonghua, ZHANG Tongzuo, SU Jianping
    2014, 34(4):  340. 
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    In the current paper we sampled plants from winter caches and nearby vicinities of 67 burrow systems of the plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi). We then calculated the electivity index (EI)of each of the food items based on their relative biomass and divided them into three preference types based on the 95% confidence limit of the mean EI with bootstrap methods:(1) preferred:95% confidence lower limit > 0;(2)changeable:95% confidence lower limit≤0 and
    95% confidence upper limit≥0;and (3)rejected:95% confidence upper limit <0. Subsequently,we measured the content of crude protein,crude fiber,crude water-soluble sugars,and crude ash of these food items and then compared them among the three preference types and further tested the correlations between the mean EI and each of these content levels. A total of 67 food items were identified from the caches,of which 39 (preferred,12 items; changeable, 16 items;rejected, 11 items)were found in more than five burrowing systems,constituting over 99% of the total biomass that we sampled. The contents of crude protein,crude fiber,and crude water-soluble sugars (but not crude ash)differed significantly among the three types (P < 0.001). The preferred and changeable types had significantly higher contents of crude protein and crude water-soluble sugars than the rejected types (P < 0. 01). Furthermore,the preferred and changeable types were found to have a significantly lower content of crude fiber as compared to the rejected types (P < 0. 01). However,the three content levels were not significantly different between the preferred and changeable types (P >0.05). Spearman correlation showed that the contents of crude protein (R =0.547,P < 0.001)and crude water-soluble sugars (R =0. 617,P < 0.001)both were significantly and positively correlated with EI while the content of crude fiber was significantly and negatively correlated (R = - 0.707,P < 0. 001). The content of crude ash was not significantly correlated with EI (R =
    0.032,P =0.846). Taken together,our results indicate that plateau zokor prefer food items containing higher levels of protein,more water-soluble sugars,and less fiber,but are apparently not sensitive to mineral content.
    Body temperature,metabolic rate and energetic characteristics of daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus)during preparation of hibernation
    LV Zheng, SONG Shiyi, YANG Ming, PENG Xia
    2014, 34(4):  348. 
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    Fat-storing hibernators accumulate body fat before hibernation,and quickly reduce body temperature and metabolic rate during hibernation. Recent studies show that body temperature,metabolism and other physiological parameters of hibernators have changed before hibernation. We recorded body temperature (Tb ),metabolic rate (MR),respiratory quotient (RQ)and energy intake in individual daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus)to understand the switch of Tb ,MR,RQ and energy intake before hibernation. Preparation before hibernation was divided into the fattening phase,the maximum body mass phase,post-fattening phase and drop test phase. Tb ,MR,RQ and energy intake were estimated by implanted iButtons,Sable FOXBOX O2 and CO2 analyzer and the improved-metabolic cages method. Results show that,(1)Daurian ground squirrels start to drop body temperature 13 -34 days before hibernation,which is later than the period of maximum body mass (BMmax ). There was a reduction tendency daily fluctuations of Tb for three days during the period of BMmax,but a significant reduction of Tb was observed during the phase of body mass reduction,during which the magnitude of daily fluctuations of Tb became larger. (2)Resting metabolic rate (RMR)was at maximum during BMmax ,then declined during the phase of body mass reduction. RMR was at minimum during test drop. (3)During BMmax RQ increased first and then reduced drastically. Energy intake reached maximum before BMmax . The results indicated that the switches of Tb ,MR,RQ and energy source in daurian ground squirrels had been completed before hibernation. BMmax phase may be
    a key point for entering hibernation or may be served as an important switch to initiate hibernation in daurian ground squirrels.
    Analysis on genetic diversity and phyletic evolution of mitochondrial DNA from Tibetan yaks
    SONG Qiaoqiao, ZHONG Jincheng, ZHANG Chengfu, XIN Jinwei, JI Qiumei, CHAI Zhixin
    2014, 34(4):  356. 
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    328 individuals from 8 Tibetan yak populations (i. e. Riduo,Leiwuqi,Dingqing,Cuona,Longzi,Zhongba, Nierong and Shenzha)were analyzed by means of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA D-loop)to explore the level of genetic diversity within populations and phyletic evolution between individuals. DnaSP4. 0 was used to compute genetic diversities within populations. MEGA5. 0,MrBayes3. 2 and PhyML3. 0 were
    used to analyze phyletic evolution between individuals. Results showed that the length of the nucleotide sequence was from 887 bp to 895 bp,and a total of 91 haplotypes were identified with 135 polymorphic sites including 52 single nucleotide polymorphisms sites and 83 parsimony-informative sites. Nucleotide mutation types included deletions,insertions,transitions and transversions. The average haploid type diversity and nucleotide diversity were 0.884 and 0. 010 27,respectively, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in Tibetan yak populations. The genetic distance between Riduo and Cuona
    was the least (0. 006),while genetic distance between Leiwuqi and Longzi was the largest (0.015). ML and BI phylogenetic tree showed that Tibetan yak populations could be divided into two major groupes. In brief,Tibetan yaks have abundant genetic diversity. Meanwhile,the Tibetan yak populations could be divided into two major groupes. Cuona yaks can be used as a truebred population to save and utilize. Other populations once communicated with each other in the course of evolution.
    Exploring the phylogenetic relationships among species of tribe caprini based on mitochondrial Cyt b and nuclear gene ZFY
    ZHU Munan, ZHOU Caiquan, HE Ya, HUANG Yan, LU Di, ZENG Xiaohua
    2014, 34(4):  366. 
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    To explore the phylogenetic relationships among tribe caprini and the species validity of Pseudois schaeferi in Pseudois,the total sequence of mitochondrial Cyt b (1140 bp)and partial sequence of the nuclear gene ZFY (612 bp) were detected in 226 fecal DNA samples of Pseudois nayaur and Pseudois schaeferi living above and below the forest line, respectively,in the valley area of the Jinsha River. These sequences were compared to the homologous DNA sequences of the tribe caprini retrieved from GenBank,then we reconstructed phylogenetic tree using maximum parsimony,maximum likelihood methods,primarily to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among these species based on obtained topological structure. The results showed that the kinship was the farthest between Ovis and other genera including Capra,Pseudois and Hemitragus. Hemitragus jelahicus was the nearest relative between Pseudois and Capra. Pseudois nayaur and the Pseudois schaeferi living in the valley area of Jinsha River are classified as the same branches as the Pseudois nayaur living in Inner Mongolia,Qinghai and Sichuan. They share the same haplotypes of Cyt b and ZFY with some Pseudois nayaur and
    Pseudois schaeferi living in the valley area of Jinsha River. The climatic events in history might lead to the intermigration of Pseudois nayaur and Pseudois schaeferi living in the valley area of Jinsha River,and male-biased dispersal promoted the gene exchanges among different geographic populations. Thus,Pseudois schaeferi should not be classified as an independent species,we advise that Pseudois nayaur and Pseudois schaeferi living in the valley area of Jinsha River be classified as Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. The dwarf Pseudois nayaur should be managed independently due to the distinctive evolutionary characteristics in morphology and ecology.
    Genetic divergence of the leopard cat in Korea (Prionailurus bengalensis) from other leopard cats and the Iriomote cat (P. iriomotensis):IRBP,12S rRNA,and Cytochrome b sequences analyses
    KOH Hung Sun, KWEON Gu Hee, HAM Eui Jeong, JANG Kyung Hee, YANG Beong Guk
    2014, 34(4):  374. 
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    We obtained IRBP,12S rRNA,and Cytochrome b (Cyt b)sequences of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) from Korea,and these sequences were compared to the corresponding sequences of the leopard cat and the Iriomote cat,P. iriomotensis,obtained from GenBank,to reexamine genetic divergence of Korean leopard cats from both other leopard cats and Iriomote cats. First,from IRBP,12S rRNA,and Cyt b sequencing analyses with 18 Korean leopard cats,six alleles, one haplotype,and three haplotypes were identified,respectively,and we concluded that past bottleneck events that occurred in Korean leopard cats,is a plausible cause for the differential loss of genotypes detected in this study. Based on Cyt b sequence analysis we confirmed that East Asian leopard cats form a clade,and we found that former and present Cyt b sequencing results support a previous classification that recognized P bengalensis from East Asia as P. euptilurus. Finally,we detected identical sequences in the IRBP and 12S rRNA genes between specimens of P bengalensis from Korea and those of P. iriomotensis,supporting widespread treatment of the Iriomote cat as conspecific with P. bengalensis.
    Genetic divergence of Korean Crocidura lasiura from a far-eastern Russian population (Soricomorpha:Mammalia):Cytochrome b analyses
    KOH Hung Sun, SHEREMETIEVA Irina, JO Jae Eun, SIN Dong Soen, KIM Jin Seong
    2014, 34(4):  381. 
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    To reexamine genetic divergence of Korean Crocidura lasiura from an adjacent far-eastern Russian population, we obtained Cyt b complete nine sequences (1 140 bp)of C. lasiura from four locations in Korea and three locations in fareastern Russia,and these sequences were compared to the corresponding complete four and partial (402 bp)four sequences of C. lasiura,obtained from GenBank. We found from this Cyt b complete sequence analysis that Korean C. lasiura is not monogenic,and concluded that Cyt b partial sequences of C. lasiura have to be used with caution for population structure investigation. More importantly,we detected from this analysis with Cyt b complete sequences that Korean C. lasiura is distinct from other C. lasiura in far-eastern Russia,with average JC distance of 1. 08% and seven fixed site differences,and consider that genetically divergent Korean C. lasiura has not been in contact from other C. lasiura in adjacent far-eastern Russia even during the last glacial maxima. Finally,we found that present sequencing results do not support the current
    subspecies classification,recognizing C. lasiura as a monotypic species,but do support a previous classification,recognized Korean C. lasiura as C. l. thomasi,although further sequencing analyses with more C. lasiura specimens from northeastern China are needed to confirm the present findings
    The screening of microsatellite DNA loci for the identification of individual Tibetan foxes,using copro-DNA samples
    YANG Yingyuan, LIU Nan, ZUO Qingqiu, RENQING Pengcuo, XIE Fei, YANG Gang, WANG Zhenghuan
    2014, 34(4):  387. 
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    Abstract:The Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata)has been identified as the main wildlife host of Echinococcus multilocularis and E. shiquicus in the eastern Tibetan plateau in China. Echinococcosis is a lethal parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococ- cus spp. endemic to the pastures of the eastern Tibetan plateau. Thus,Echinococcus prevalence in Tibetan fox populations is of interest for studies into this disease. Consequently,there is practical significance to evaluate the population size of Tibetan foxes. Therefore we developed noninvasive microsatellite DNA identity analysis techniques using Tibetan fox feces. A total of 48 microsatellite loci were tested for effectiveness,among which 11 were selected to analyze identities of 128 qualified Tibetan fox fecal samples collected in field during July-August,2011 and 2012 (i. e. ,68 in 2011,and 60 in 2012). The number of genotypes (N),expected heterozygosity (He ),observed heterozygosity (Ho ),polymorphism information content (PIC),and probability of identity (PI)were calculated by allelic frequency. N ranged from 4 to 7,He was 0.66-0. 80,Ho was 0.17 -0. 68,and PIC was 0. 5496 - 0.7623. The overall copro-DNA PI values of the 11 loci were low(PIbiased = 1.283 × 10 - 11 ;PIsibs = 7.572 ×10 - 5 ). However,the amplification success rate of each microsatellite locus was quite different ranging from 0. 926 to 0.176. We then sorted the loci according to their amplification success rates from the highest to the lowest and found PI values of the first six loci with amplification success rates above 60% (i. e. ,P03,
    CXX172,CPH6,CPH8,P01i,P08)were already low enough (PIbiase d = 2.775 ×10 - 7 ;PIsibs = 3. 606 × 10 - 3 )for individual identification. Therefore the individual identification standards were devised as follows:(1)only copro-DNA samples with successful amplification from at least the first six microsatellite loci were used for further analysis;(2)when all alleles were identical between two samples,the samples were considered to originate from the same individual;(3)in a conservative approach,if just one allele mismatch was observed between two samples,they were also judged to originate from the same individual. We then identified 30 fox individuals from fecal samples in 2011,and 21 individuals from fecal samples in 2012.
    Expression and characteristic analysis of LIFR gene in yak ovary during the reproductive cycle
    YU Yao, PAN Yangyang, CUI Yan, WEI Bo, TIAN Feng, HE Junfeng, FAN Jiangfeng, YU Sijiu
    2014, 34(4):  393. 
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    Combination of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR)with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)is very important in the process of mammalian reproduction, mammalian ovulation,embryo development,and embryo implantation. For further research into the role LIFR in the ovary,this study aims to clone yak LIFR cDNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT - PCR),the sequences characteristics were analyzed,and LIFR gene expression in the ovary examined by real time quantitative PCR in the ovary during the reproductive cycle. Our study obtained a complete cDNA sequences of 3 329 bp of LIFR gene of yak with a deduced protein consisting of 1 095 amino acids that are highly homologogous with other species. The LIFR gene is higher during pregnancy than other stages. The results of this study indicate that the LIFR genes is evolutionarily conserved and plays an important role during the reproductive cycle.
    Microstructure of dorsal guard hairs of six shrews in Soricidae:implication for species identification
    WANG Qiong, WANG Lu, QUAN Mengyi, TANG Yanyan, WEI Haixue, FU Changkun, ZHANG Xiuyue, CHEN Guiying, CHEN Shunde, ZONG Hao
    2014, 34(4):  399. 
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    Shrew diversity is rich in China. We often encounter difficulties in shrew species identification due to their small size and similar morphological characteristics. Here,scale and medulla patterns of dorsal guard hairs of six shrews in Soricidae were studied using microscopic digital interaction system. Scale patterns of dorsal guard hairs showed nine shapes,including petal shape,oblong shape,rhomboid shape,long hastate shape,bamboo-like shape, bud-like shape, wavy shape,smooth shape and serrated shape. The six shrews could be reliably identified through these scale patterns.However, most of the medulla patterns among the six shrews showed a striped shape and could not be used for the shrew species identification. Thus,it was feasible to use scale patterns of guard hairs as taxonomic characteristics to identify shrew species.
    Light microscope structure of Vormela peregusna kidney and expression of AQP1,2 in kidney
    ZHANG Chunyan, HOU Tiande, XU Dengcui, DING Weigang, ZHANG Huiying
    2014, 34(4):  406. 
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    Indices such as many kinds of blood inorganic ions and urea nitrogen were measured in this paper. The histological structure of kidney in Vormela peregusna was examined by using biological microscopy. The expression of Aquaporin1,2 (AQP1,2)was tested using immunohistochemical and stereological quantitative methods,and the expression intensity of Aquaporin1,2 (AQP1,2)was analyzed by using image pro-plus (IPP)image software. The results show that the concentration of K+ ,Na + ,Cl- ,Ca 2 + in serum of Vormela peregusna is higher than that in rat,however P 3+ is lower than that in rat.Creatinine,glucose and total cholesterol in serum also are higher than those in rat. Urea nitrogen is much higher than that in rat,and may be related to living in the Minqing Gansu desert and eating rodents that have high protein content. The degree of concentration of urine is high because the ratio of medulla and cortex is 3. 65∶ 1 and medulla is wide. AQP1 positive cells were expressed in the epithelium of proximal the convoluted tubule and thin segments of the medullary loop,and AQP2 was mainly expressed in epithelial cells of collecting ducts. Thus,AQP1,2 may play an important
    role water reabsorption by the kidney and the concentration of urine,which regulated by the water balance of kidney.
    The daily food intake and apparent digestibility by captive red gorals in summer
    WANG Yingshu, LIU Qunxiu, TIAN Xiuhua, LI Shasha
    2014, 34(4):  414. 
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    To analyze the daily feed intake and apparent digestibility to forage nutrition of red goral (Nemorhaedus cranbrooki) and determine diet composition,from June to August 2012,8 healthy adult red gorals from the Shanghai Zoo were selected and separated into 2 groups,group I and group II,based on different dietary roughage,to compare the daily food intake and apparent digestibility by red goral to different forages. The results showed that:(1)The average daily food intake of adult red gorals was (2801.44 ± 245. 02)g during the summer;(2)Male daily food intake (P <0. 05),apparent digestibility of crude fiber and apparent digestibility of dried matter and crude protein were significantly different between the two groups (P <0.05),and the difference in crude fat between the 2 groups was not significant. Red gorals showed preferences toward palatability of the Group II diet with higher daily intake and digestibility;therefore,Group II is the recommended diet for captive red gorals.
    Population characteristics of semi-free-ranging plains zebra
    CHI Jun, XU Hui, YU Mingbin
    2014, 34(4):  419. 
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    This paper analyzed the population characteristics of plains zebra (Equus bruchelli)and the survivorship of 77 foals that were born from 2002 to 2013 in the Dalian Forest Zoo. The results show that,under semi-ranging conditions,the average female first breeds at 4. 59 ±0. 54 years of age and the average male at 4.77 ± 0.73 years old. The population size increases continually and 66.18% of the whole population is of breeding value. Further,85. 7% of zebra foals are born from April to September and no difference is observed in the survivorship between female and male individuals,however, the inter-birth interval following a male foal is significantly longer.
    Effects of ozone treatment on the freshness of bamboo shoots for captive giant pandas
    HUANG He, ZHANG Zhihe, WANG Chengdong, LIU Yuliang, CAI Zhigang, WANG Hairui, HOU Rong
    2014, 34(4):  423. 
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    In order to prolong the freshness of bamboo shoots for captive giant pandas,bamboo shoots were stored at low temperatures (2℃ - 4℃ )and a high relative humidity (90% -95% ),as well as treated with 20 - 30 mg /m3 ozone for 20 min each day. Bamboo shoots without ozone treatment served as controls. The results showed that ozone treatment significantly inhibited the reproduction of microflora (P =0. 001),slowed down the rate of weight loss (P = 0.001),reduced the crude fibre content (P = 0.001)and maintained the relative high levels of total soluble sugar content in bamboo shoots when compared with controls during storage. In addition,food preference tests showed that giant pandas prefer eating the fresh kept bamboo shoots.Therefore,the technique could be used to keep fresh bamboo shoots for captive giant pandas.