兽类学报

• 论文 • 上一篇    

三江源区人兽冲突现状分析

闫京艳1,2 张毓3 蔡振媛1,2 陈家瑞1,2 覃雯1,2 张婧捷1,2 连新明1 张同作1,4   

  1. (1 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所,高原生物适应与进化重点实验室,西宁 810001)
    (2 中国科学院大学,北京 100049)
    (3 青海省林业和草业局,西宁 810008)
    (4 青海省动物生态基因组学重点实验室,西宁 810001)
  • 出版日期:2019-07-30 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 通讯作者: E-mail:zhangtz@nwipb.cas.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFC0506405);中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA2002030302;XDA23060602);青海省重点研发与转化计划(2019-SF-150);三江源国家公园建设项目(2016-040-1)

Analysis on the human-wildlife conflict in the Sanjiangyuan Region

YAN Jingyan 1,2, ZHANG Yu 3, CAI Zhenyuan 1,2, CHEN Jiarui 1,2, QIN Wen 1,2, ZHANG Jingjie 1,2, LIAN Xinming 1, ZHANG Tongzuo 1,4#br#   

  1. (1 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Xining 810001, China)
    (2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)
    (3 Qinghai Forestry and Grassland Bureau, Xining 810008, China)
    (4 Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Ecological Genomics, Xining 810001, China)
  • Online:2019-07-30 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

本研究整理了2015—2016年三江源区曲麻莱县、治多县和囊谦县的人兽冲突记录,并对主要肇事物种和人兽冲突的时间分布、地点分布以及受损类型的分布进行了统计分析。结果显示:(1)主要肇事野生动物依次为狼(978起,64.13%)、棕熊(117起,7.67%)、雪豹(5起,0.33%)和野牦牛(3起,0.20%),而其余422起冲突(27.67%)未记录肇事野生动物;(2)人兽冲突时间分布不稳定,其高发期不同年份不同地区都会有所不同,总体来看,每年的1月、2月和12月棕熊和狼引起冲突较少,高峰期通常为6—9月;(3)从地区分布看,人兽冲突热点区域是曲麻莱县和治多县,特别是曲麻莱县的秋智乡和麻多乡,治多县的治渠乡、多彩乡、立新乡和扎河乡,曲麻莱县和治多县交接区域是人兽冲突高发区,囊谦县人兽冲突整体情况相对较轻;(4)从受损类型看,对牛的攻击和伤害是最主要的受损类型(749次,79.94%),此类冲突明显多于对羊(56次,5.98%)和马(24次,2.56%)造成伤害的冲突,以及对房屋和家具等其它财产造成破坏的冲突(108起,11.53%)。本研究结果为三江源生态保护和国家公园建设制定更有效的预防和缓解人兽冲突的措施等提供了可靠依据。

关键词: 三江源, 人兽冲突, 狼, 棕熊, 雪豹

Abstract:

Records on human-wildlife conflicts in Sanjiangyuan,Qumalai、Zhiduo and Nangqian Counties from 2015 to 2016 were analyzed to find the main causing species and to trace the rules in the time distribution、the geographic distribution and the damage patterns. As our results showed:(1)the main causing animals were Canis lupus(978 cases,64.13%), Ursus arctos(117 cases,7.67%), Uncia uncia(5 cases,0.33%)and Bos mutus(3 cases,0.20%)in order,leaving 422 cases(27.67%)without causing species information;(2)the time distribution of the conflicts was not very stable and the peak period differed in different years and regions;but totally,conflicts in January,February and December were fewer,and the peak period typically occurred during June to September;(3)as to the geographic distribution,the situation in Qumalai and Zhiduo was heavier,especially Qiuzhi and Maduo towns in Qumalai and Zhiqu,Duocai,Lixin and Zhahe in Zhiduo;the conflict hotspot was located in the juncture of Qumalai and Zhiduo Counties;the situation in Nangqian was relatively slighter;(4)the attack and injury to cattle(749 cases,79.94%)was the most common damage type,and conflicts with this damage type were much more than those causing damages to sheep(56 cases,5.98%)or horses(24 cases,2.56%),or house and furniture(108 cases,11.53%). This study will provide reliable information for more effective actions to prevent and alleviate the human-wildlife conflicts in Sanjiangyuan.

Key words: Sanjiangyuan, Human-wildlife conflict, Canis lupus, Ursus arctos, Uncia uncia