兽类学报

• 方法与技术 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江源查旦乡夏季大中型兽类与鸟类物种多样性和垂直分布格局研究

刘周1 周虎1 吴国生2 陈康民3 章书声4 蔡平5 徐爱春1
  

  1. (1中国计量大学生命科学学院,杭州 310018)(2西宁野生动物园,西宁 810015)(3杭州市临安区农业农村局,杭州 311300)(4浙江乌岩岭国家级自然保护区管理局,泰顺 325500)(5青海省林业和草原局,西宁 810008)
  • 出版日期:2020-09-30 发布日期:2020-09-27
  • 通讯作者: 徐爱春 E-mail:springlover@cjlu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    青海省第二次陆生野生动物资源调查项目

The diversity and vertical distribution of summer large and medium-sized mammals and birds in Chadan Township, Sanjiangyuan,Qinghai Province

LIU Zhou, ZHOU Hu, WU Guosheng, CHEN Kangmin, ZHANG Shusheng, CAI Ping, XU Aichun   

  • Online:2020-09-30 Published:2020-09-27

摘要: 查旦乡位于三江源腹地,生态地位极其重要,但兽类和鸟类本地资源尚未明确。本研究采用样线和样方结合法对该区域夏季兽类与鸟类多样性进行调查。共记录到到大中型兽类9种,隶属于5目5科8属,其中国家重点保护兽类4种。西藏野驴、藏原羚在区内为优势种,分别占兽类个体总数的45.5%和21.6%;鸟类11目26科44属52种,其中国家重点保护鸟类11种。鸟类中雀形目为优势种,占鸟类个体总数的81.0%。样区内兽类与鸟类物种数在不同海拔间存在显著差异(兽类:P<0.001;鸟类:P<0.001),兽类的垂直分布随海拔增加呈递减趋势,在海拔4800~4849 m段生物多样性水平最高;鸟类垂直分布格局符合向左偏移的“中峰模式”, 物种多样性指数随海拔增加而先增加后减小。本次研究掌握了查旦乡样区内夏季鸟兽组成情况,丰富了三江源保护区和唐古拉山脉的鸟兽资料,同时为相对较小尺度下物种空间分布格局的研究提供案例。

关键词: 生物多样性, 空间格局, 中峰模式, 查旦乡, 三江源

Abstract: The diversity of large and medium-sized mammals and birds in the monitoring area of Chadan in the Sanjiangyuan region was surveyed in July 30 to August 2018.The survey recorded 9 mammals species and including 4 national key protected mammals.These 9 species belonged to 5 orders, 5 families and 8 genera. Equus kiang and Procapra picticaudata are dominant species in the region, with a proportion of 45.5% and 21.6% in mammals. A total of 52 birds species were observed in Chadan.These 52 species belonged to 11 orders, 26 families and 44 genera, including 11 species under national protected. Among birds, Passerine is the dominant species, accounting for 81.0% of the total number of individual birds. The study shows that the number of mammals’ and birds’ species in in different altitude has a significant difference(mammals:P<0.001;birds: P<0.001). The vertical distribution of mammals in monitoring area decreased with the increase of altitude, and it’s biodiversity is the highest to altitude from 4800m to 4849 m. The birds’ vertical distribution pattern conforms to the offset to the left ‘mid-domain effect’. The Shannon-Wiener index increases first and then decreases with increasing altitude. This study has mastered the composition of summer birds and mammals in the Chadan area of Sanjiangyuan region, enriched the data of birds and mammals in the Sanjiangyuan region and the Tanggula Mountains, and it provides a case study for the spatial distribution pattern of species at small scales.

Key words: Biodiversity, Spatial autocorrelation, Mid-domain effect, Chadan Township, Sanjiangyuan