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A preliminary survey of population size and habitats of Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii )in Taxkorgan Nature Reserve,Xinjiang,China

GONG Minghao,DAI Zhigang,ZENG Zhigao,ZHANG Qiong,SONG Yanling   

  • Online:2007-12-11 Published:2008-07-07


龚明昊, 戴志刚, 曾治高, 张琼, 宋延龄   

  1. 国家林业局调查规划设计院,北京

Abstract: Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii)are threatened by overgrazing,habitat destruction,poaching,and disease.We conducted a survey of population size and habitat availability of Marco Polo sheep during summer 2005 in Taxkorgan Nature Reserve,Xinjiang,China. We identified the distribution of sheep within the reserve by interviewing local people and reserve staff We divided the study area into four search regions (I,II,III,IV)according to landscape features, and searched for sheep on foot,on horseback,and by vehicle in each region. Once sheep were located,group size,age, and sex of the animals were noted and habitat variables within 200 m of the group recorded. The pooled habitat data was used to model the habitat requirements of Marco Polo sheep,and on this basis,we estimated the amount of suitable habitat
within the reserve. We estimated the population density of sheep in each region of the reserve,and estimated there were between 1 500 and 1 700 sheeps inhabiting the area.Marco Polo sheep were not evenly distributed throughout Taxkorgan reserve, but were concentrated on the Pamir Plateau. We estimated the total area of Marco Polo sheep distribution within the reserve to be 4 012 km2 ,with 641 km2 of this area comprising suitable habitat;however only 75% of this area (482 km2 ) was available to the sheep. We provide conservation suggestions for Marco Polo sheep based on these results,the most important of which is that the entire Pisiling area should be incorporated into the reserve because the highest density of the Marco Polo sheep was found there.

Key words: Habitat, Habitat availability, Marco Polo Sheep, (Ovis ammon polii), Population estimation

摘要: 2005 年7 ~8 月我们在塔什库尔干自然保护区对马可波罗盘羊的种群数量进行了调查。首先走访当地居民和保护区工作人员,确定盘羊分布范围,然后根据地形和水系,将调查区域分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ 4 个区。在每个调查区域沿河谷和沟谷设置随机样线,步行、骑马或开车沿样线搜寻盘羊,记录群体数量、年龄、性别、栖息地类型。通过调查以盘羊所在地为中心、直径200 m 的圆形样方中的地形和生态因子,确定盘羊利用的栖息地特征值,建立马可波罗盘羊对栖息地利用的模型。以1∶50 000 的地形图建立调查地区的数字高程模型(DEM), 用ArcView3.2 的spatial analyst 模块进行空间模拟与分析,计算出马可波罗盘羊分布区内符合模型中的海拔、坡度、坡向等要求的空间的范围和面积。通过计算每个调查地区的种群密度、适宜栖息地面积等数据,获得种群数量估计值,进而得到保护区内马可波罗盘羊的种群数量的估计值。调查结果表明,马可波罗盘羊分布在保护区西部达布达尔乡的皮斯岭、卡拉其古、赞坎沟等帕米尔高原地区;种群总数在1 500 ~ 1 700 只;保护区内盘羊分布面积为4 012.17 km2 ,适宜栖息地面积只有641.16 km2 ,可利用的栖息地仅482.67km2,仅占分布区的12.03% 。过牧、栖息地破坏、非法狩猎、疫病和交流障碍是盘羊生存的主要威胁因子。建议通过调整保护区边界、恢复栖息地、防止疫病、加强宣传、开展多边合作等措施来加强马可波罗盘羊的保护问题。

关键词: 种群数量调查, 栖息地, 可利用生境, 马可波罗盘羊