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    Research advances in Cetacean osmoregulation
      
    Abstract2468)      PDF (336KB)(23149)       Save
    As a unique clade of mammalia,Cetaceans complete all of their life activities in water. Cetaceans therefore have developed various strategies to adapt to their aquatic environments morphologically,physiologically and ecologically. Most of the Cetaceans inhabit the hyperosmotic marine environment,but a few species live in the hypoosmotic freshwater systems. However,despite the obvious differences of their living environment,both the freshwater and marine Cetaceans face the same challenge - to maintain the water balance and electrolyte homeostasis of their body. How do Cetaceans adapt to their aquatic environments?What kinds of strategies do they develop in morphology,physiology and ecology?We try to expound upon the osmoregulation process of the Cetaceans in the following aspects:source and metabolism of water/ electrolytes, morphology and histology of the kidney and skin,hormone regulation,and the molecules related to osmoregulation etc. by consulting and discussing the conclusions of previous research in the past century on this issue. Moreover,future research trends and important issues in this area are also discussed and proposed.
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    History,current situation and prospects on nature reserves for giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China
    HU Jinchu,ZHANG Zejun ,WEI Fuwen
      
    Abstract4923)      PDF (190KB)(2939)       Save
    The giant panda,a tribute to emperors in ancient China,is an endemic species and regarded as a modern national
    treasure. Contributing to extensive illegal hunting,it has become endangered before liberation. During 1950s,Chinese
    government initiated the establishment of nature reserves to conserve wildlife and their habitats,and in 1960s,five reserves,
    including Wolong,Wanglang,Baihe,Labahe and Taibaishan,were established for the giant panda. Seven more
    reserves were established in 1970s,based on the first national ground survey for the giant panda,and the reserves for the
    species summed up to thirteen. The second national ground survey (1985 - 1988)indicated that the population of wild giant
    pandas was decreased as much as 54% . In 1990s,the total of panda reserves was increased to 36,and by now,there
    have been 63 reserves established to protect giant pandas and their habitats,covering about 85% of the remaining habitats
    and 50% of individuals. The extant population was estimated about 2000,sparsely distributed in remote western mountane
    ranges in China. Chinese government has developed many in-situ and ex-site conservation strategies to conserve the animal
    by now. Giant pandas should deserve a promising future.
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    Distribution pattern and zoogeographical division of mammals on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    HUANG Wei,XIA Lin,YANG Qisen,FENG Zuojian
      
    Abstract5111)      PDF (513KB)(2834)       Save
    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is located in southwestern China. 250 species of mammals belonging to 10 orders and
    30 families have been recorded by the authors on the plateau. On the basis of comprehensive physical factors,the whole plateau was divided into 24 basic units identified as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) for clustering. The information on mammals in each was used to compute composition similarity for the 24 OTU using Ward’s methods. Our study indicated that Palaearctic species were mainly distributed in Qiangtang and the northern plateau while the Oriental species were mainly distributed in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains. The Palaearctic species in Qiangtang and the northern plateau comprised 88.6% of those on the whole plateau while the Oriental species in southern Tibet and the Hengduan Mountains comprised 97.7% . Based on clustering analysis and the landform on the plateau etc. , the zoogeographic distributions can be classified into fourth-level divisions. First,the zoogeographic distribution of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau can be divided into two first-level divisions with the linkage distance between 0.6219 and 1.0738. Second,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into four second-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.5034 and 0.6219.
    Third, the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into seven third-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.2236 and 0.2684. Fourth,the zoogeographic distribution of the whole plateau can be divided into sixteen fourth-level divisions with the linkage distances between 0.0930 and 0.1245. Finally,according to the mammalian distribution and the evolution of the plateau,we discussed how the distribution pattern of the mammals in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau formed. It is suggested that the formation of the distribution pattern is closely related to the uplift of the plateau.
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    Marine mammal researches in China
    HAO Yujiang,WANG Kexiong,HAN Jiabo,ZHENG Jingsong,XIAN Yijie,YAO Zhiping,LU Zhichuang,LI Haiyan,ZHANG Xianfeng
      
    Abstract4371)      PDF (441KB)(2651)       Save
    Researchers in China have studied marine mammals for over 80 years. In recognition of Acta Theriologica Sinica’s
    30 year anniversary,we have reviewed the history of this research using an extensive published literature as well as our own research and experience,summarized its progress,and discuss future prospects. Marine mammals in this paper are divided into three groups:whales,pinnipeds,and other marine mammals. We have focused on research examining the ecology, rearing and breeding biology,conservation genetic,acoustics,and conservation biology for selected species. Two main points have been drawn from the review. First,Chinese research on marine mammals is at the forefront of some fields including research on rearing and breeding biology,c onservation biology,and bio-acoustics of river dolphin or porpoise. The second point,unfortunately,is that there is a lack of systematics studies on marine mammals in Chinese coastal waters. Finally, we expect to see significant breakthroughs and real progress on the protection of endangered species in the near future.
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    Taxonomy and conservation status of gibbons in China
      
    Abstract3380)      PDF (774KB)(2537)       Save
    This paper reviews the taxonomy and conservation status of gibbons (Hylobatidae)and provides basic and comprehensive data for future conservation and research of gibbons in China. Based on the latest taxonomy of gibbons,4 genera and 17 species are recognized. Of these,6 species in 3 genera ( Nomascus concolor, N. nasutus, N. hainanus,
    N. leucogenys,Hoolock leuconedys,Hylobates lar
    )are distributed in China. Gibbons once were widely distributed in China, but are now restricted in Yunnan,Guangxi and Hainan because of habitat loss and degradation,and hunting. Conservation of gibbons in China is an urgent problem. H. lar and N. leucogenys might have disappeared from China;the populations of N. nasutus, N. hainanus are less than 30 individuals;the populations of H.leuconedys is less than 200 individuals; and as for the largest population, N. concolor has 1 000 -1 300 individuals. Law enforcement,conservation awareness education,promotion of popular science,and long-term conservation oriented research will help to conserve China’s last surviving gibbons.
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    Research advances and perspectives on the ecology of wild giant pandas
    WEI Fuwen,ZHANG Zejun,HU Jinchu
      
    Abstract2996)      PDF (325KB)(2480)       Save

    Among the order Carnivora, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most attractive animals, possessing high value for scientific research and being a symbol of worldwide nature conservation. In early 1980s, the Chinese government, cooperating with the WWF in initiated a research project on wild giant pandas in Wolong Nature Reserve. Since then, extensive research activities have been conducted in different mountain ranges inhabited by the animal. The application of new techniques such as 3S (GIS, RS, GPS)and molecular markers in the ecological study of the giant panda has greatly improved our understanding of its ecology. To date,a huge body of knowledge and information has been accumulated, potentially helpful for developing adaptive conservation strategies. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in understanding the ecology of wild giant pandas during the past 30 years on various aspects, including habitat ecology, feeding ecology, reproductive ecology, behavioral ecology, molecular ecology, population ecology and community ecology. Meanwhile, given the demands of research and management, future research directions are suggested.

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    Mammalian fauna and its vertical changes in Mt. Qomolangma National Nature Reserve,Tibet,China
    HU Yiming,YAO Zhijun,HUANG Zhiwen2 ,TIAN Yuan,LI Haibin,PU Qiong,YANG Daode,HU Huijian
      
    Abstract2336)      PDF (1347KB)(2360)       Save
    The Mt. Qomolangma Natural Reserve,Tibet (QNR)conserves the extreme-highly mountainous ecosystem of Mt. Qomolangma and,thus,plays an important ecological role. However,its mammalian fauna is still a mystery,due to its harsh natural environments and difficult access. We carried out five field baseline surveys of mammalian diversity in the
    QNR by using a belt transect method,visits,an auto-trigger camera system,and traps,from September,2010 to October, 2012. A total of 81 species from 23 families and 10 orders were recorded,including 34 species which were listed on the State Key Protection List. Among them,regional species were common at 38. 3% of the total,with 14 Himalaya-Hengduan Mountainous species and 17 Highland species. With increasing attitude,species richness increased and reached its maximum at 2 500 -3 300 m where 48 species were found,followed by a rapid decrease in richness at higher elevations. The Fauna on the South Slope differed significantly from that on the North Slope. Among the 76 species on the South Slope,41 species belonged to the Orient Realm and 25 belonged to the Palearctic Realm. Among the 29 species on the North Slope,there were 2 Oriental species and 23 Palearctic species. On the South Slope,the Oriental species were dominant below an attitude of 3300m and the Palearctic were dominant above 4 000 m. Hence,we suggest that a division between the Oriental Realm and the Palearctic Realm exited in the South Slope in QNR with the dividing line between 3 300 m and 4 000 m.
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    Comparison of the Tibetan fox ( Vulpes ferrilata) home range size using methods the fixed kernel estimation and the minimum convex polygon
    LIU Xiaoqing,WANG Xiaoming,WANG Zhenghuan,LIU Qunxiu,MA Bo
      
    Abstract2325)      PDF (861KB)(2265)       Save
    The minimum convex polygon (MCP)and the fixed kernel estimator (FKE)are the two methods most used for
    home range estimation. However,because of the problems like spatial data dependence and extreme data points,the usage of these two methods is limited. In this paper,we attempted to analyze and compare the results from these two methods, and discuss how to avoid the disadvantages of each method to make the home range estimation more accurate. We documented 352 locations of 7 adult Tibetan foxes (Vulpes ferrilata) in Shiqu County,Sichuan Province and Dulan County,Qinghai Province during 2006 and 2007. Both MCP and FKE were used to calculate the home range. We found:(1)when the utility probability percentage was set ≤95% ,the difference of the home range size calculated by these two methods had no significant difference;(2)although FKE was more robust than MCP,extreme data points influenced the calculation of both the two methods in higher utilization probability percentage (i. e.,85% - 100% ); (3)home range size calculated by FKE was influenced significantly by the setting of smoothing parameter h which could be determined arbitrarily and the least squares cross validation did not always provide the best evaluation of h. We recommended that both of the FKE and 95% MCP should be used in the same home range study. FKE can be the better home range estimator when the autocorrelation of data spatial distribution is not significant. However,95% MCP can be the only choice especially when the comparison of the results from different telemetry studies is needed.
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    Transcriptomatic determination of convergent evolution between plateau zokors ( Eospalax baileyi) and naked mole rats ( Heterocephalus glaber)
    DENG Xiaogong,WANG Kun,ZHANG Shoudong,SU Jianping,ZHANG Tongzuo,LIN Gonghua
    兽类学报   
    A recent survey of bat diversity (Mammalia:Chiroptera)in Macau
    WONG Kai Chin,TAN Liangjing,YANG Jian,CHEN Yi,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,CHOI Man
      
    Abstract2560)      PDF (2071KB)(2219)       Save
    Surveys to investigate bat species diversity were conducted in Macau from 2009 to 2012. Results indicated that at least 10 bat species belonging to eight genera from five families were identified. Of the 10 species, Hipposideros armiger (Hipposideridae)and Pipistrellus abramus (Vespertilionidae)were previously recorded in Macau,while eight species were
    newly recorded for Macau from the present study. The new bats were Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti (Pteropidae), Taphozous melanopogon(Emballonuridae), Rhinolophus pusillus (Rhinolophidae), Myotis ricketti, P. pipistrellus, Miniopterus schreibersi,and M. pusillus (Vespertilionidae). In addition,using ultrasound survey methods and comparing results with published data on echolocation calls,we also recorded and identified one Rhinolophus species and one Hipposideros species,the former possibly representing R. siamensis or R. affinis,and the latter H. pomona or Aselliscus stoliczkanus. The present work also reports data on distribution range,morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of all 10 captured bat species,as well as a discussion of population size and conservation status in these species. It is important to protect roost habitats (including caves,old buildings and Chinese fan-palm)in order to conserve bat species diversity in Macau.
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    Mammalian skeleton specimen preparation using proteolytic enzyme (alcalase)detergent
    WU Yonghua,YANG Qisen
      
    Abstract2422)      PDF (799KB)(2145)       Save
    We report on an easy method to remove muscle tissue from the skeleton by alcalase detergent in mammalian skeleton specimen preparation. In the present paper,using hare skull specimen as an example,we describe the alcalase detergentmethod in details and compare it with other methods for mammalian skeleton specimen preparation. In this method,hare muscle tissues are removed from skeletons by alcalase detergent. With commercial proteinases,alcalase (2.4 L, 2.4 AU/ g, Novozymes Biotechnology Co. , Ltd. ), the process requires around 10 minutes’skeletal simmering in a 0.5% solution (V/V) of the alcalase and water under 60 ℃ condition. In total, about 101 rat skull and 487 hare skull specimens are made using this method. Compared to other traditional methods in mammalian skeleton specimen preparation,the alcalase detergent method is safer,more efficient and less costly,and it is also suitable for batch production of skeleton specimen.
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    New bat record from Guangdong Province in China — Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840)
    ZHANG Libiao,LIU Qi,SHEN Qiqi,ZHU Guangjian,CHEN Yi,ZHAO Jiao,LIU Hui,SUN Yunxiao,GONG Yuening,LI Chaorong
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2014, 34 (3): 292-.  
    Abstract1547)      PDF (6424KB)(2117)       Save
    Three bats (2 males and 1 female)were collected in Babao Mountain (24°55'43.4″N,113° 0′57. 0″E,1 000 ma.s.l),Guangdong Nanling National Nature Reserve,Guangdong Province,China in July,2013. These bats are middle size,with 40. 4 - 41. 6 mm forearm length,and 16. 0 -16. 1 mm greatest length of skull. The pelage was characteristic.On the dorsum,the basal hairs are black,with distinctive yellow-ferruginous and shiny tips. On the abdomen,the basal hairs are black and brown,with paler tips,and differ among throat,chest and abdomen. The tragus is broad with lunar to kidney shape. The margins of the ears and tragus are palm and pale color. These bats were identified as Arielulus circumdatus (Temminck,1840),was and are the first records from Guangdong Province. Previous records suggested that this bat species was only found in Yunnan Province in China,and with very few specimens. The features of morphological structure and the skull of these specimens are given in this paper,and compared with specimens from Yunnan and SE Asia. We also recorded the echolocation calls of these bats,and discuss the taxonomy and distribution of this bat species in China. The specimens were kept in Guangdong Entomological Institute.
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    Discovery of Murina shuipuensis outside of its type locality – new record from Guangdong and Jiangxi Provinces, China
    WANG Xiaoyun, ZHANG Qiuping, GUO Weijian, LI Feng, CHEN Bocheng, XU Zhongxian, WANG Yingyong, WU Yi, YU Wenhua, LI Yuchun
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.201601014
    The energy cost of reproduction in small rodents
    Speakman John R.
      
    Abstract1757)      PDF (264KB)(1988)       Save
    Reproduction is the mechanism by which animals perpetuate their genetic contribution to future generations. Reproduction therefore has clear advantages, but it also has costs. Principal among these are elevated energy demands. Studies of energy demands in small domesticated mice have revealed that food intake increases only slightly during pregnancy, but much more dramatically during lactation. Although the increase during pregnancy are small, this may reflect competition for space in the abdomen between the alimentary tract and the developing foetal mass and intake may be limited in this situation and impose constraints on the reproductive event. During lactation energy intake increase enormously, reaching an asymptote in late lactation. Studies in wild rodents generally show the same pattern of intake between pregnancy and lactation lending hope that our work in domestic mice may provide more generally applicable insights. Studies aiming to discover the nature of the limit on intake in late lactation have been performed for at least the past 15 years. The suggestion that the limits are imposed by capacities of the alimentary tract to digest food, or the of the mammary gland to secrete milk, do not adequately explain the available data. A novel hypothesis is that the limits may be imposed by the capacity of small rodents to dissipate heat. Heat loss capacity has long been known as a constraint on lactation in large mammals. Its significance in small rodents remains uncertain, but adjustments in the level of thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue that have been classically interpreted as releasing energy to support lactation may actually reflect a reduction in obligatory heat production to avoid hyperthermia. In spite of our advances in understanding in these areas we are still far from using this knowledge to understand even simple life history trade-offs.
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    Cold experience during lactation inhibits adult neurogenesis in Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    ZHAO Yuanchun, ZHANG Xueying, WANG Dehua
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150311
    Homosexual and masturbating behaviors in a group of captive Yangtze finless porpoises ( Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis)
    ZHANG Changqun,ZHENG Yang,PLATTO Sara,HAO Yujiang,WANG Ding
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2015, 35 (3): 241-252.  
    Abstract2049)      PDF (2063KB)(1928)       Save
    Similar to terrestrial mammals, male-female sexual behavior is significant for the survival and continuation of certain cetacean species. However, non-reproductive mating behaviors, i.e. homosexual behaviors and masturbation, are widespread in all mammals. Therefore, it would be interesting and helpful to better understand the reproduction of cetaceans by further investigating their non-reproductive behaviors. We investigated male and female non-reproductive behaviors in a captive population of Yangtze finless porpoise including three males and four females. Fourteen sexual behaviors were defined in our sexual behavioral ethogram, and the occurrence frequencies and dyads of each non-reproductive behavior were recorded. Over half of the sexual behaviors were non-reproductive behaviors (3887 times, 69.87%); homosexual behaviors occurred 3633 times (65.31%) and masturbation was recorded 254 times (4.57%). Most homosexual behaviors were performed between males (3438 times, 94.63%). The dyads AFU & TAO (1921 times, 55.88%) were the most active dyads involved in male-male sexual behaviors, and most of these behaviors (1543 times, 80.32%) were cooperative by counterpart. The male homosexual behaviors are thought to be related to the gang coalition or training. One female-female pair (F7 & F9; 117 times; 60.00%) performed the most frequent homosexual behaviors. None of the female-female sexual behaviors were rejected by the counterpart. Female homosexual behaviors, however, may have something to do with company or communication.
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    Feeding activity of François langurs in Karst habitat
    ZHOU Qihai,CAI Xiangwen,HUANG Chengming,LI Youbang,LUO Yaping
      
    Abstract1780)      PDF (1396KB)(1900)       Save
    To explore the influence of habitat fragmentation on the ecology of the François langur ( Trachypithecus francoisi), data on habitat use were collected from a group of François langurs living in an isolated hill in the Fusui Rare Animal Nature Reserve,Guangxi Province,between August 2002 and July 2003. Our results indicated that there was significant variation in the distribution of feeding activity in different vertical hill zones They showed preference for feeding in the middle zone. The top zone,as well as the bottom zone were used less for feeding. Langurs' feeding activities were concentrated in six patches,with a total area of 7.94 ha,which occupied 18.9% of the habitat. The densities of langurs' preferred food plants in the feeding patches were higher than that in the non-feeding patches. Langurs' diet varied according to season, even though leaves contributed a large proportion of the diet. This diet shift corresponded to seasonal variations in the utilization of feeding patches.
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    Blood physiological parameters of captive Amur tiger ( Panthera tigris altaica)
    HAN Zhiqiang, WANG Haijun, Liu Cunfa, WANG Xiaoxu, ZHAO Quanmin, XU Chao
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150241
    The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve,Shaanxi
    WU Pengfeng,LIU Xuehua,CAI Qiong,HE Xiangbo,Melissa Songer,ZHU Yun,SHAO Xiaoming
      
    Abstract3401)      PDF (410KB)(1823)       Save
    Since July 2009,the total 18 cameras were installed in the Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (GNR),Shaanxi Province.During our 24 months’monitoring from August 2009 to July 2011,we have collected a total of 1 755 mammal photos.The results show (1)a total of 22 mammal species were photographed. The first 6 species selected for analysis based
    on a relative abundance index (RAI)were Budorcas taxicolor,Naemorhedus goral,Elaphodus cephalophus,Sus scrofa,Capricornis sumatraensis and Muntiacus reevesi;their total percentage reaches 86.04% . (2)The monthly RAI (MRAI)for the whole year varies among months. The greatest value of MRAI is acquired in July and the lowest in February. (3)Three of the six selected species demonstrated similar daily activity patterns,which has two peaks,one at dawn and one at dusk.The daily pattern of Naemorhedus goral also has two peaks,but they differe from those of the previous three species. The daily activity pattern of Sus scrofa shows a peak at noon and Capricornis sumatraensis was less active at the period of 10∶ 00- 16∶00. (4)The NRAI gave a clear indication of variation in nocturnality among the 6 species. Capricornis sumatraensis was most active at night and Sus scrofa was opposite.
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    Survey on the resources status of dugong in Hainan Province,China
    WANG Peilie, HAN Jiabo, MA Zhiqiang, WANG Nianbin
      
    Abstract1556)      PDF (252KB)(1802)       Save
    In order to provide scientific data for establishing a dugong ( Dugong dugon) nature reserve in Hainan Province,we investigated the marine environment and the status of dugongs along the west cost of Hainan Island, November 2001-October 2002. Questionnaire surveys in Guangxi and Guangdong as well as Hainan were also conducted during this time. We documented dugongs in the coastal waters of Hepu County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,but found no dugongs along the west coast of Hainan. Seagrass beds in the traditional habitats of dugong were destroyed and had disappeared in some areas. We believe that conditions are not presently conducive to establishment of a dugong nature reserve in Hainan. The dugong population has been reduced by human activities and ecosystem deterioration. Effective measures and an integrated management system are needed to conserve dugongs and their habitats.
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    Using camera traps to survey wildlife at water sources on the northern slope of the Altun Mountains,China
    XUE Yadong, LIU Fang, GUO Tiezheng, YUAN Lei, LI Diqiang
    兽类学报   
    Population genetic structure and population genetic diversity analysis based on mitochondrial DNA of Asian elephant( Elephas maximus) in China
      
    Abstract3162)      PDF (1450KB)(1780)       Save
    The Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus) is the most endangered probiscidean, and occurs in China only in Yunnan Province. With non-invasive sampling using elephant dung as a DNA source, the population genetic structure and diversity were observed from PCR analysis of 178 individuals. One haplotype (ML&SY&SM&MY1) is shared among 4 conservation areas Mengla (ML), Shangyong (SY), Simao(SM) and Mengyang(MY), including 114 of 178 individuals, which differs from that found in the Nangunhe(NGH) area. Two highly divergent clades, α and β, of Asian elephants in China are observed using phylogenetic analyses and are verified by neighbour-joining(NJ), maximum parsimony(MP) and maximum likehood(ML) approaches. The result showed that the α clade includes 4 populations (ML, SY, SM and MY) and the β calde only includes the Nangunhe population. This also shows that there is high genetic divergence between the Nangunhe population and the other 4 populations. Mitochondrial DNA data analysis showed that genetic diversities in all of the 5 Asian elephant populations are very low, and resulted from habitat fragmentation which separated the effective genetic flow among the 5 populations.
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    Preliminary comparison of diet composition of four small sized carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia
    ZHANG Lijia,WANG Anmeng,YUAN Li,BAO Weidong,YANG Yongxin,Baterr
      
    Abstract3684)      PDF (269KB)(1768)       Save
    Food habits and competition of sympatric carnivores at Saihanwula Nature Reserve,Inner Mongolia were compared from August to December 2007 by examining fecal content. Food items were evaluated by rate of occurrence in the diet and in weight percentage of total diet. Our study included red fox (Vulpes vulpes), badger (Melesmeles), mountain weasel (Mustela altaica) and leopard cat (Felis bengalensis). The data indicate red fox ingested 15 kinds of food with the following composition:plants (32.6% ), rodents (31.3% ) and birds (18.6% ); weasels were occasionally preyed upon (0.7% ). Although plant occurrence was high percentage,the role of vegetation decreased when calculated in relative weight percentage. Badger consumed more insects (29.3% ) and fruit (57.8% ) in terms of frequency, while mountain weasel preyed upon rodents at a very high rate of occurrence (73.7% ) and weight percentage (99. 8% ). The leopard cat primarily ate birds (27.8% ), especially medium-sized partridge (16.7% ccurrence rate). The index of relative importance indicates that red fox took hare,plants,rodents,and birds as their staple foods;badgers preferred more fruit and insects over other food types;and rodents were the dominant food for mountain weasel (63.9% ), with birds (16.7% ) higher than plants (10.05% ). A comparison of food niche breadth shows that red fox had the largest standardized value (0.2) followed by leopard cat (0.1), badger (0.07) and mountain weasel (0.001). These standardized values correlate with the distribution pattern of main prey groups. Based on food niche overlap,food competition was severe for red fox and badger (O = 0.99), red fox and leopard cat (O = 0.7), and badger and leopard cat (O = 0.6). These species could exist sympatrically in that there is a difference in main food types;red fox preyed more on hare and rodents,leopard cat caught more birds,and badger ate fruits and insects. Mountain weasel distribution and population development may be limited by red fox predation.
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    Vocalization behaviour of Sichuan sika deer ( Cervur nippon sichuanicus) during rut
    NING Jizu,GUO Yanshu,ZHENG Huizhen
      
    Abstract2610)      PDF (944KB)(1767)       Save
    We studied vocal behavior of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Tiebu Nature Reserve, SichuanProvince, from 20 September to the 15 November 2006. We documented three types of calls:alarm call (in both sexes), roaring (males only)and rutting call (males only). Alarm calls of males had durations of 136 to 187 ms, a frequency range of 271.8 -3910.5 Hz, and the principal frequency was 3244.3 ±79.32 Hz. Alarm calls of females had durations of 257 to 539 ms, a frequency range of 1409.5 – 4474.6 Hz, and the principal frequency was 3534.8 ±89.12 Hz. Duration, minimum frequency, and maximum frequency of male and female alarm calls differed (P < 0.01). But intervals between alarm calls did not (P = 0.624). Roars varied in duration from 1580 to 4972 ms, in frequency form 234.6 to 6171.4 Hz, and the principal frequency was 2264.6 ±166.44 Hz. The principal frequency of roar differed among males (P < 0.01). During a roaring bout, the roar of one stag often aroused an oppositional roar of another stag. Frequency of the roaring was correlated with social rank-classes (primary males,secondary males and single males; P <0.01). Roaring was documented at all times of day, but peaks of roaring bouts occurred during 06:00 - 08:00,17:00 - 19:00,and 01:00 -03:00. We identified four types of rutting calls among stags, associated with displaying, pursuing females, mounting females, and being aroused by females.
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    Sexual size dimorphism in animals and the relative research in bats
    WU Hui,JIANG Tinglei,FENG Jiang
    ACTA Theriologica Sinica    2014, 34 (3): 313-.  
    Abstract1052)      PDF (1449KB)(1761)       Save
    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD)is commonplace in the animal kingdom. SSD in a given species is expected to result if selective pressures on body size are stronger in one sex than another,or if selective processes push the two sexes in opposing directions. Rensch’s rule states a relationship between SSD and body size:SSD increases with body size when males are the larger sex,and decreases with body size when females are the larger sex. Here,we review briefly some research progress and the variation patterns in SSD of animals,and summarize the SSD research in bats. Further studies are required to investigate why bats mostly exhibit female-biased SSD,and whether the variation in SSD conforms to Rensch’s rule.
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    Comparisons of echolocation calls and wing morphology among six sympatric bat species
    WEI Li,GAN Yuman,LI Zhouquan,LIN Zhihua,HONG Tiyu,ZHANG Libiao
      
    Abstract2769)      PDF (462KB)(1716)       Save
    During May to August 2006,we studied the echolocation calls and wing morphology of six sympatric species ofbats which belong to Hipposideridae and Vespertilionidae in Qixing Cave, Guilin City Hipposideros pratti produces short CF/ FM calls which mainly contain three harmonics, and has high wing loading,low aspect ratio and average wing tip shape index. H. armiger produces single CF/ FM calls, and has high wing loading, low aspect ratio and average wing tip shape index H. larvatus produces single CF/ FM calls, and has average wing loading, low aspect ratio and average wing tip shape index. Myotis siligorensis produces long bandwidth calls that are usually single FM sweep, being the smallest of these bat species with low wing loading, low aspect ratio and average wing tip shape index. M. ricketti produces single FM calls, and has average wing loading, low aspect ratio and high wing tip shape index. Nyctalus plancyi produces three harmonics short FM calls, and has high wing loading, average aspect ratio and low wing tip shape index. Most morphological and call parameters among these six bat species were significantly different (P < 0. 05) with One-Way ANOVA method. These results indicated that these six sympatric bat species were highly adapted to different foraging strategies and habitats which was also correlated with the significant differentiation of species-specific echolocation calls and external morphological characteristics. The present work demonstrated that niche partitioning occurred among these six bat species, which leads to decreases in the pressure of interspecies competition. Therefore, niche partitioning was the key mechanism for coexistence of these bat’s community.
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    The genetic divergence and gene flow pattern of two muntjac deer ( Muntiacus reevesi) populations,Wannan and Dabie Mountains,from the effect of Yangtze River and the late Pleistocene glacial oscillations
    SHI Wenbo,WANG Hui,ZHU Lifeng,ZHU Qiongqiong,HAN Demin,CHANG Qing,ZHANG Baowei
      
    Abstract1939)      PDF (765KB)(1697)       Save
    The muntjac deer ( Muntiacus reevesi ) is a widespread species in South China , which makes it an excellent target species in phylogeography and population genetics studies in the South China area . Using 770 nucleotides of the mitochondrial DNA D - loop region from 101 individuals from Wannan ( WN ) and Dabie mountains ( DB ), we explored the genetic diversity , effective populations , population demographic history and gene flow pattern between the two populations . In these populations , higher genetic diversity and larger effective population size were observed in the Wannan population ( h = 0.952 ,π = 0. 0168 , N E = 146830 ) than in the Dabie population ( h = 0.734 ,π = 0.0077 , N E = 19840 ). Based on Mismatch Distribution Analysis , a significant population expansion sign was detected in the Wanan population ( 0.157 Mya ), which might have been triggered by the warm fourth interglacial stage of the Pleistocene . The demographic history analysis indicated that Pleistocene climate fluctuations had imprinted a strong genetic signal in the genetic background of muntjac deer . In addition , an asymmetric gene flow pattern was discovered between the Wannan and Dabie populations ( MWN DB = 0.36 ; MDB WN = 75.00 ). The asymmetric gene flow pattern might be attributable to the landscape changes of the Yangtze River in the Pleistocene glacial oscillations , which may reflect the totally different effects of barriers in the glacial period and interglacial stages .
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    Distribution pattern and zoogeographical discussion of mammals in Xin-jiang
    HUANG Wei,XIA Lin,FENG Zuojian,YANG Qisen
      
    Abstract1102)      PDF (882KB)(1667)       Save
    Xinjiang is located in the northwestern portion of China. Altogether,138 species of mammals belonging to 8 orders and 22 families have been recorded by the authors in Xinjiang. Among them,119 species (86.2% of the total number of the mammals) are considered to be Palaearctic and 9 species to be Oriental mammals,with the others considered to be widely spread mammals. On the basis of regions of investigation,we identified 85 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) for clustering. Then the information of mammals in each was used to compute composition similarity for the 85 OTU using
    Ward's methods of cluster analysis. According to the composition of clustering analysis and of the local landform in Xinjiang etc. , the zoogeographic distribution can be divided into three grades. First, the region of northern part and Hami Basin is separated from the others in Xinjiang. Second,the region of the Altay Mountains is separated from the others in the north,while the region of northern Karakorum-Kunlun Mountains and southern Tarim Basin is separated from the others in the south. Third,the deltaic region of Yily,the region of southern Junggar Basin,the region of Tarbagatai Mountains and
    the northwest of Junggar Basin and the region of Hami Basin and western Tianshan Mountains are all separated from each, while the region of southern Tianshan Mountains and Pamir Altiplano and the region of northern Tarim Basin are separated from each other. Obviously,the distribution of species is associated with the environments where they live,and some natural barriers can restrict dispersal of mammals.
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    CDS cloning and sequence analysis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)from plateau zokor ( Myospalax baileyi)
    ZHANG Xuze,XIE Ling,GUO Xinyi,CHEN Guihua,LIN Gonghua,DU Yurong,PANG Bo,GUO Songchang
      
    Abstract2059)      PDF (3271KB)(1651)       Save
    Enduring hypoxia stress related to high altitude and subterranean burrows,the plateau zokor ( Myospalax baileyi) has high efficiency in oxygen utilization which makes it adapt very well to the hypoxic plateau environment. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS),one of three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase,plays an important role in the adapation to hypoxia. In
    this study,the coding sequence of nNOS was cloned by RT-PCR from the brain of plateau zokor. The size of this gene is 4 290 bp in length,and encodes a protein composed of 1 429 aa. The nNOS gene of the plateau zokor was 87% to 90% homologous to human,dog,rabbit,mouse and rat. We identified typical nNOS domains,such as PDZ, oxidase, reductase domain and CaM binding sites within nNOSs of Plateau zokor. The molecular phylogenetic trees based on ML and Bayesian method showed that the plateau zokor clustered with mouse and rat,which was consistent with traditional phylogenetic relationship inferred from morphological and molecular markers. Three positive selected sites of Plateau zokor (332 T,1200 G and 1334 P)were identified by the PAML analysis,although statistically insignificant. Our results lay a foundation for further exploring the expression pattern,function and regulatory mechanism of nNOS in Plateau zokor acclimatization to hypoxia.
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