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    Catalogue of mammals in China(2021)
    WEI Fuwen, YANG Qisen, WU Yi, JIANG Xuelong, LIU Shaoying, LI Baoguo, YANG Guang, LI Ming, ZHOU Jiang, LI Song, HU Yibo, GE Deyan, LI Sheng, YU Wenhua, CHEN Bingyao, ZHANG Zejun, ZHOU Caiquan, WU Shibao, ZHANG Li, CHEN Zhongzheng, CHEN Shunde, DENG Huaiqing, JIANG Tinglei, ZHANG Libiao, SHI Hongyan, LU Xueli, LI Quan, LIU Zhu, CUI Yaqian, LI Yuchun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 487-501.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150595
    Abstract5411)      PDF (1771KB)(3765)       Save
    China is one of the countries with the highest diversity of mammalian species. Knowledge of mammalian diversity and their taxonomy is fundamental to mammalian research and is the basis of scientific conservation of wild populations. To clarify the species diversity and important taxonomic information such as the taxonomic position of mammals in China, the China Mammalogical Society organized an editorial committee consisting of taxonomists studying different taxonomic groups. Based on previous taxonomic studies and the latest morphological and genetic evidences, the editorial committee produced the latest catalogue of mammalian species in China. This catalogue includes 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera, and 686 species. The catalogue uses the taxonomy system based on phylogeny and fully discusses the validity of species taxonomy.
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    Research advances and perspectives of mammalogy in China in the past 40 years
    WANG Dehua, WEI Fuwen, ZHANG Zhibin, WANG Zuwang
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 483-486.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150602
    Abstract1383)      PDF (1229KB)(1144)       Save
    It has been 40 years since the establishment of the Branch of Mammalogical Society of China Zoology Society in 1980 and the official founding of the journal Acta Theriologica Sinica in 1981. Most areas of mammalogy experienced great and healthy developments in China, especially in taxonomy and phylogeny, population ecology, physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, conservation ecology, conservation genetics, molecular evolution, and habitats assessments. Here we invited 11 review papers to reveal the main advances of these areas in the past 40 years in China and proposed some potential developmental directions for the future. Based on the well developments of these areas, some new problems and areas such as diseases of wild mammals and their transmission ecology, the roles of mammals in the ecosystem under climate changing, conservation physiology, and conservation metagenomics are the research fields that should be enhanced.
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    Taxonomic and systematic research progress of mammals in China
    YU Wenhua, HE Kai, FAN Pengfei, CHEN Bingyao, LI Sheng, LIU Shaoying, ZHOU Jiang, YANG Qisen, LI Ming, JIANG Xuelong, YANG Guang, WU Shibao, LU Xueli, HU Yibo, LI Baoguo, LI Yuchun, JIANG Tinglei, WEI Fuwen, WU Yi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 502-524.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150535
    Abstract1335)      PDF (3119KB)(1389)       Save
    Rich mammalian diversity in China ranks it as one of the key groups in maintaining ecological function. Since Mr. John R. Reeves conducted the first mammalian survey in Guangdong, China, from 1829 to 1834, Chinese mammal taxonomic and systematic researches have made remarkable progress in the past 200 years. Presently, the number of mammal species in China has reached 686, representing about 10% of all mammals and making it one of the most diverse countries in mammal species in the world. As China attaches greater importance to ecological protection, the ecological environment is increasingly improved. Nevertheless, along with global climate change, increasing human activities and the emergence of major human-animal epidemics, the importance of mammal surveys and taxonomic clarification has become more apparent. Meanwhile, this traditional discipline is constantly incorporating state-of-art techniques, such as integrative taxonomy, digitization of specimens, type specimens sequencing technique, portable sequencing techniques and deep learning-based species identification, with the goals of verifying species identification, building proper taxonomic classifications, and promoting the application and transformation of taxonomic achievements to other discipline. Animal taxonomy, a traditional basic discipline, is also the basis for many branches in modern biology, such as genetics, physiology, ecology, medicine and pharmacology. However, due to distinct characteristics among disciplines, it has not received sufficient attention in recent years. It is thus necessary to value traditional taxonomy, morphology and other basic disciplines at the national level, and provide special policy and financial support on talent training and funding.
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    Research advances and prespectives in ethology and behavioral ecology of the mammals in China
    LI Baoguo, HOU Rong, ZHANG He, CHEN Guoliang, FANG Gu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 525-536.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150529
    Abstract1261)      PDF (2008KB)(985)       Save
    Ethology and behavioral ecology study the behavioral traits, behavior patterns and behavior mechanisms of animals, as well as the behavior strategies to adapt to environmental changes. Here, we briefly review some significant achievements of these two research fields over the past forty years in China by focusing specifically on mammalian taxa. The results indicate that more advanced technologies and methods have significantly improved the ways of data collection and experimental analysis over the past two decades. Chinese scholars have published many high-quality papers in international journals and books, which has narrowed the research gap between China and the developed nations. In particular, behavioral studies on the giant panda are playing a leading global role. Some other significant research achievements include those on interspecific interactions and behavioral adaptation mechanisms of rodents, primates' social behavior and adaptation mechanism of foraging strategy, and echolocation behaviors of bats. In contrast, behavioral studies on some groups, such as carnivores, ungulates, and marine mammals, are still lacking. The increasing national support on basic research, more high-level research bases and the growing number of scientists, as well as the application of interdisciplinary and advanced techniques, will facilitate the prosperous development of ethology and behavioral ecology in China.
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    Research advances and prespectives in mammal physiological ecology in China
    WANG Dehua, ZHAO Zhijun, ZHANG Xueying, ZHANG Zhiqiang, XU Deli, XING Xin, YANG Shengmei, WANG Zhengkun, GAO Yunfang, YANG Ming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 537-555.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150558
    Abstract1174)      PDF (2869KB)(1010)       Save
    After more than 70 years of development, mammalian physiological ecology in China has made great progress in the study of physiological adaptation of animals living in different geographical environments, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Inner Mongolia Grassland, and the Hengduan Mountains. The main research topics include energy metabolism and body temperature regulation, hibernation physiology, water metabolism, ecological immunology, and the thermoregulatory role of gut microbiota. Some topics and areas still require more effort, such as physiological adaptation of mammals to extreme environments, large mammals physiology and conservation physiology. The new technologies need to be better integrated including the multi-omics technology, isotope technology, and remote sensing technology. This paper reviews the main advances of mammalian physiological ecology in China.
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    Research advances and perspectives on mammal population ecology in China
    BIAN Jianghui
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 556-570.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150500
    Abstract1154)      PDF (2704KB)(974)       Save
    Mammal population ecology is key component of model ecology. Charles Sutherland Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations marked the beginning of modern population ecological research. What factors regulate population fluctuation has always puzzled ecologists and many hypotheses were put forward to explain mechanism underlying population fluctuation, but there is no one hypothesis that can perfectly explain its mechanism. The study of mammal population ecology in China began in the 1950s, and has gone through 70 years of development, and has made some important achievements. In this paper, we summarize research findings and progress in rodent and other mammal populations during the past 70 years on various aspects, including pattern of population dynamics, changes in demography, effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and interaction of those factors. Meanwhile, future research directions are suggested.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genomics and meta-genomics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, HUANG Guangping, FAN Huizhong, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 581-590.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150518
    Abstract1153)      PDF (1937KB)(966)       Save
    Understanding the evolutionary processes, endangered mechanisms and adaptive evolution are key scientific issues in conservation biology. During the past decades, advances in high-throughput sequencing and multi-disciplinary crossover provide deep insights into the evolutionary history, genetic structure, adaptive evolution, and host-microbiota coevolution of endangered species. The emergence of two new branches of conservation biology, Conservation Genomics and Conservation Metagenomics, provides novel insights into wildlife conservation. In this review, we summarize the important advances in the two fields and discuss the future research directions, aiming to promote the conservation biology of threa-tened animals in China.
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    Research advances and prepectives on habitat assessment and protection of endangered mammals of China
    JIANG Guangshun, LI Jingzhi
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 604-613.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150501
    Abstract1147)      PDF (2121KB)(1003)       Save
    At present, global, species are facing increasing extinction risk at an unprecedented rate. The effective assessment and scientific protection of wildlife habitat are important prerequisites and means to prevent endangered wildlife from extinction and maintain their sustainable survivals and development. This article summarizes the current status and achievements of research progress on habitat assessment and protection from five categories of endangered wildlife in China:carnivores, ungulates, primates, small mammals, and marine mammals. This article summarizes and analyzes related acade-mic achievements in order to reveal systematic and valuable methods and technical means for the scientific protection and management of habitats. This article also offers prospects for the theoretical and technical challenges of habitat assessment and protection research. It proposes that the habitat assessment and protection research of endangered mammals in China should move towards a ‘precise’ development direction of integration, quantification, intelligence, and multi-disciplinary cross-integration applications, to provide technical support for the effective implementation of national ecological construction projects.
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    Seasonality of abundant and rare taxa in gut microbiota of plateau pikas
    FAN Chao, ZHANG Liangzhi, FU Haibo, LIU Chuanfa, LI Wenjing, ZHANG He, TANG Xianjiang, CHENG Qi, SHEN Wenjuan, ZHANG Yanming
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 617-630.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150540
    Abstract1138)   HTML656)    PDF (12688KB)(1136)       Save
    Climate and diet are important factors driving seasonal changes in gut microbiota of small herbivorous mammals. However, most previous studies rarely addressed abundant and rare taxa in gut microbiota. Here, we used plateau pika ( Ochotona curzoniae) as a model and conducted 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling to explore the seasonal differences (spring, summer, autumn, and winter) in microbial composition, diversity, and function in abundant and rare taxa. The results showed that the Shannon index of abundant and rare taxa was significantly higher in winter than in other seasons. However, the ACE index of abundant taxa was significantly lower in autumn than in other seasons while that of rare taxa was significantly higher in winter than in spring and summer. For the abundant taxa, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in winter and autumn was significantly higher than that in spring and summer, while for the rare taxa, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes in summer and autumn was significantly higher than that in winter and spring. The relative abundance of the amino acid metabolism pathway in abundant taxa was significantly higher in winter than that in spring and summer, while the relative abundance of this pathway in rare taxa was significantly higher in spring than that in summer and autumn. Air temperature, precipitation, and vegetative nutrition were significantly associated with variations in the microbial composition of both abundant and rare taxa. The total explanation proportions of environmental variables to the changes of abundant and rare taxa were 18% (air temperature:3%; precipitation:4%; vegetative nutrition:10%; combined:1%) and 9% (air temperature:1%; precipitation:2%; vegetative nutrition:5%; combined:1%), respectively. The results indicate that abundant and rare taxa of gut microorganisms have different distribution patterns, seasonal characteristics, and contributions to the entire microbial variation. The abundant taxa were more strongly influenced by environmental variables, reflecting the inconsistency in responses of different gut microbial taxa to seasonal changes. This study promotes our understanding of seasonal processes and environmental adaptability of animal's gut microbiota.
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    Research advances and perspectives of conservation genetics of threatened mammals in China
    WEI Fuwen, MA Tianxiao, HU Yibo
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 571-580.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150517
    Abstract1133)      PDF (1840KB)(907)       Save
    China is one of the world's mega-diverse countries. There are diverse terrestrial and marine mammals in China, including endemic and flagship species like the giant panda, snub-nosed monkey, South China tiger, Milu, and Baiji. However, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, pollution, and climate change imposed direct threats to mammals' survival, which resulted in the genetic diversity loss of species. Genetic diversity is the basic component of biodiversity and affects the long-term survival of species and populations. Therefore, conservation genetics was established as an important branch subject of conservation biology, aiming to investigate the population genetic variation and genetic mechanisms of species endangerment and extinction. With rapid development in research techniques and methods, great progress has been made in China in the past 40 years in the evaluation of genetic diversity and inbreeding, landscape genetics, ecological genetics, and genetic management on threatened mammals. Meanwhile, the threats to mammals' survival caused by human activities still exist. The further development of new techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing, could deepen our understanding of the genetic adaptation and endangerment processes of threatened mammals, and lead to more effective management and conservation.
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    Research advances and perspectives in the genetics and evolution of mammals in China
    YANG Guang, TIAN Ran, XU Shixia
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 591-603.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150538
    Abstract1122)      PDF (2179KB)(890)       Save
    China has a rich resource of mammals, about 150 of which are endemic species. This review summarizes research on the evolutionary genetics of mammals in China for the past 60 years, including phylogenetic reconstruction, genetic diversity, population structure, adaptive evolution, and molecular mechanisms of convergent evolution. We especially focus on the significant research achievements in some key taxa such as Carnivora (giant panda and red panda), Ungulate, Chiroptera, Primates, small mammals, and marine mammals, providing useful information for the conservation of Chinese mammals. We also propose several suggestions for future studies on the evolution of Chinese mammals, including utilizing multi-omics technologies, screening new genetic markers and candidate genes or regulatory elements, integrating methods of epigenetics and evolutionary developmental biology. This review aims to help understand the taxonomy, origin, as well as the developmental and genetic mechanisms in specific phenotypes and unique adaptations of Chinese mammals, further realizing the new vision and conceptual framework of ‘Unity of Nature and Man’ in conservation biology.
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    Impacts of a road on abundance of wild animals through infrared camera monitoring: a case study of road inside Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve
    SOO Yu Han, CAI Qiong, ZHU Ziyu, HE Xiangbo, LIU Xuehua, Melissa Songer
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 49-57.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150504
    Abstract1109)   HTML301)    PDF (11981KB)(926)       Save
    From July 2014 to October 2018, 20 infrared cameras were used to monitor the impacts of an internal road on the activities of wild mammals and birds in Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve in Shaanxi. A total of 16 168 pieces of photographs were obtained with 13 species of wild mammals and 14 species of wild birds. Among the detected species, 4 are listed as Class Ⅰ state key protected wild animals in China and 7 as Class Ⅱ. The result showed that the further away from the road, the more animal species appeared. 2 species of mammals only appeared in the area that is 100 m away from the road, which indicated that certain mammals showed an obvious avoidance effect on the road. As 8 species of birds only appeared in an area 50 m away from the road, birds showed a stronger avoidance effect than mammals. However, roads with fewer vehicles at night can provide easier night mobility for certain mammals, so the intensity of activity at night of takin ( Budorcas taxicolor) near the road increased. Only the wild boar ( Sus scrofa) in the area 5 m away from the road showed a peak in night activity to avoid human disturbance during the day. Only golden pheasant ( Chrysolophus pictus) in an area 100 m away from the road have similar activity time as other studies in Qinling. This showed that golden pheasants near the road changed their activity time to adapt to road disturbance. Our study preliminarily proved that roads have a certain impact on wild animals. We suggest studies on road ecology in the whole Guanyinshan National Nature Reserve area.
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    Mammal specimen collection in China
    WEI Fuwen
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (5): 614-616.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150603
    Abstract1086)      PDF (1017KB)(894)       Save
    China is rich in mammal diversity, with 12 orders, 59 families, 254 genera and 686 species. In the past 40 years, the number of mammal specimens in Chinese museums has increased rapidly. According to the newly published catalogue of mammals in China, 19 museums were investigated and a total of 166 178 mammal specimens are preserved. The top 5 museums, which accounted for 84.9% of all preserved specimens, are the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS); Institute of Zoology, CAS; Sichuan Academy of Forestry Sciences; Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, CAS; and China West Normal University. Among the specimens in the 19 museums, small mammals accounted for 91.5%. Large- and medium-sized mammal specimens, especially cetaceans, are relatively low. The specimen collection and preservation of these groups should be increased in the future.
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    Positional behavior of Assam macaque ( Macaca assamensis) living in the limestone forest of southwest Guangxi, China
    LIU Zheng, LIU Shengyuan, LI Youbang, HUANG Zhonghao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 12-23.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150543
    Abstract983)   HTML313)    PDF (1650KB)(1007)       Save
    Positional behavior studies have vital importance for understanding the adaptation mechanism of primates to their habitat. To explore seasonal and daily variations of Assam macaques ( Macaca assamensis) positional behavior and the influence of food composition and ecological factors on this type of behavior, we collected positional behavioral data via instantaneous scan sampling method from September 2012 to August 2013 at Guangxi Nonggang National Nature Reserve, located in southwest China. The quadrupedal walking (45. 3% ±7. 6%) was observed as the most frequently used locomotion mode, followed by leaping (28. 8% ±4. 8%), climbing (23. 9% ±6. 2%), quadrupedal running (1. 2% ±0. 7%) and bridging (0. 9% ±0. 6%), with a significant difference. Locomotion modes varied significantly between seasons. Assam macaques used bridging more frequently in fruit-rich season but used climbing less during the fruit-lean season. However, the other modes of locomotion did not significantly vary in the different seasons. Assam macaques were documented to climb more often in the afternoon than during the morning period. There were also significant variations in the macaques' postures. Specifically, sitting (91. 7% ±4. 1%) was the dominant posture, followed by standing-forelimb suspending (4. 2% ±3. 3%), suspending (1. 9% ±1. 6%), quadrupedal standing (1. 4% ±1. 8%), and lying (0. 8% ±0. 5%). In addition, we observed a variety of significant different postures during different activities. For instance, sitting (87. 3% ±6. 1%) and standing-forelimb suspending (7. 9% ±5. 5%) was the dominant postural modes for feeding, sitting (95. 6% ±2. 8%) and lying (3. 1% ±2. 2%) was the dominant postural mode during the grooming behavior; and sitting (97. 1% ±1. 4%) and quadrupedal standing (2. 2% ±1. 1%) was the dominant postural modes observed during the resting periods. There was no significant seasonal variation in observations related to the different postures of this group of macaques. Lying and suspending posture were more frequently used in the morning (06:00-11:59) than during the afternoon (12:00-19:00). Nevertheless, diet and ecological factors were important parameters that affected the positional behavior of macaques. We established both model I (including fruits) and model II (including immature leaves) to test the effects of diet composition on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. These results provided evidence of the effects of diet and ecological factors on the positional behavior of Assam macaques. This study highlights the necessity to increase the knowledge of behavioral ecology and to understand the influence of ecological factors on the survival of Assam macaque in the limestone forest.
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    New records of bat species and their conservation status in Macao, China
    WANG Junhua, WONG Kai-Chin, CHEK Si-Nga, VU Ka-Man, CHAN Hoi-Hou, LIANG Jie, HE Xiangyang, ZHANG Libiao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 125-130.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150521
    Abstract913)   HTML310)    PDF (23206KB)(726)       Save
    Between 2013 and 2019, we surveyed the bats of Macao aiming to shed further light on the local bat diversity and to evaluate the bat population size. By undertaking a roost survey, and recording bat morphological characteristics and echolocation calls, we were able to identify bat species and estimate their population size. We identified six previously unrecorded species for Macao belonging to 5 genera and 3 families. The newly recorded bats were Rhinolophus affinis and R. sinicus (Rhinolophidae), Chaerephon plicatus (Molossidae), Tylonycteris fulvida, Scotophilus kuhlii, and Vespertilio sinensis (Vespertilionidae). Together with the previously recorded species, the diversity of bats in Macao now totals 16 species (11 genera, 5 families). We describe the distributions, morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of the six newly added bats species. Finally, the population and conservation status of the bats in Macao are also discussed.
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    Review on embryonic diapause and its regulation mechanisms in mammals
    LIU Jun, ZHANG Peijun, LI Songhai
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 95-107.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150482
    Abstract859)   HTML236)    PDF (4497KB)(598)       Save
    Embryonic diapause is a survival strategy and reproductive state that is widespread in mammals. It starts prior to implantation when embryo development is minimized or put on hold, and terminates when embryo development is reactivated. Embryonic diapause is supposed to be reversible and harmless to the subsequent embryo development and it has two types:facultative diapause and obligate diapause. Facultative diapause is activated by lactation whereas obligate diapause is activated by seasonal photoperiod. The entrance, maintenance, and reactivation of embryonic diapause are all regulated by the relative levels of prolactin, progesterone, or ovarian estrogen. In addition to hormone regulation, the molecular mechanisms of embryonic diapause have been studied in several mammal species. A large number of potential factors that could regulate embryonic diapause were reported, including nutrients, proteases, cytokines, growth factors and transcription factors. In the present study, we reviewed previous studies on embryonic diapause, summarized current knowledge, and then proposed some scientific suggestions for further research needed on this topic.
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    A preliminary study of spatial distribution of Chinese goral carcasses in mid-Qinling Mountains
    ZHU Qifeng, ZHAO Qingxia, JIN Xuelin, SHI Dong, WU Qiaoxing, YANG Minghai
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 714-720.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150461
    Abstract855)   HTML230)    PDF (3353KB)(614)       Save
    In recent years, Chinese goral ( Nemorhaedus griseus) carcasses were frequently found in the mid-Qinling Mountains. In order to assess the spatial distribution pattern of goral carcasses, data of the individuals from Shaanxi's Fourth Giant Panda Survey was used in this study to analyse how the gorals/goral carcasses sites were related to altitude, slope, aspect, river, and road through quantitative analyses. The results showed:(1) the correlation between the sites of goral carcasses and topographic factors was relatively significant. Goral carcasses tend to be found at relatively low altitude (1 200-2 400 m) and mild slope (6°-25°). The chi-square test also showed that the aspect of the goral carcasses sites was significantly different from the goral sites. Most of the goral carcasses were found at south-facing/half southfacing slopes. (2) The correlation between the sites of goral carcasses and the distance to river was significant. The kernel density analysis and Z-test further showed that there were significant differences between the gorals/goral carcasses sites and the distance to river. Most of the goral carcasses sites were close to river (< 100 m). (3) The correlation between the sites of goral carcasses and the distance to road was not significant. Kernel density analysis and Z-test showed that there was no significant difference between the sites of gorals/goral carcasses and the distance to road. This study proposed several suggestions about how to strengthen the protection of gorals in the future.
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    A study on the relationship between oxytocin level and maternal behavior in captive giant pandas
    WANG Ziye, BI Wenlei, WU Wei, YU Jiaojiao, ZHOU Yanshan, HOU Rong, XIANG Zuofu, QI Dunwu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2021, 41 (6): 721-730.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150477
    Abstract839)   HTML152)    PDF (1652KB)(649)       Save
    Maintaining a good cub-rearing relationship is of great significance for the healthy development of newborn giant panda cubs. Oxytocin plays a key role in this cub-rearing relationship development during the breeding period. To investigate the relationship between oxytocin levels and maternal behavior, we sampled the maternal behavior of 6 adult female giant pandas (3 in lactation group, 3 in non-lactation group) at Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding from June to September 2019 by using the focal sampling method, and tested the urine oxytocin level of each individuals by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the oxytocin levels were significantly higher in the lactation group (278. 86 pg/mg ±44. 42 pg/mg) than in the non-lactation group. For the two types of breastfeeding groups, the level of oxytocin in the multiparous female pandas (185. 64 pg/mg ±44. 61 pg/mg) was significantly lower than that in the primiparous female pandas (465. 30 pg/mg ±82. 39 pg/mg). Compared with the primiparous female pandas, the multiparous female pandas had more embracing cub behavior (77. 45% ±1. 24%) and feeding behavior (15. 22% ±1. 62%), but less licking cub (14. 26% ±0. 91%) and position adjustment behavior (1. 69% ±0. 29%). Finally, we found the licking cub behavior was significantly positively correlated with the oxytocin level in the lactation group, and the embracing cub behavior was significantly negatively correlated with the oxytocin level in the lactation group. The results indicate that primiparous female pandas show more maternal behavior, less individual behavior and higher oxytocin levels. The results of this study suggest that the different reactions of oxytocin in the two types of giant panda females may help to improve the refined and differentiated breeding techniques for captive giant pandas in the future.
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    Differential expression genes analysis of liver in Maiwa yak at different growth stages
    FU Fang, WANG Li, ZI Xiangdong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 85-94.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150506
    Abstract788)   HTML169)    PDF (7938KB)(1031)       Save
    The study was conducted to detect the expression pattern of genes in yak liver growth. The transcriptome sequencing of 1-day-old (LD), 15-month-old (LM) and 5-year-old (LY) healthy Maiwa yaks were performed by using Illumina (HiSeqTM2500) high-throughput sequencing platform, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in livers of yaks at different growth stages were verified by qRT-PCR. The results indicated that 325, 85 and 84 significantly DEGs with higher expression levels in LD, LM and LY than the other two groups, respectively ( P < 0. 05). The DEGs were significantly enriched in 102, 104 and 134 GO terms and 19, 13 and 19 KEGG pathways, respectively ( P < 0. 05). The oxidation-reduction-related process, development process, and metabolic-related process were the largest proportion of GO terms. The PI3K Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion and ECM receptor interaction were the largest proportion of KEGG pathways. In addition, qRT-PCR results showed that the expressions of CYP7B1, PGFS2, CYP1A1, UGT2C1-1, UGT2C1L, HSD11B1, CYP2C19 and UGT2C1-2 were consistent with those of RNA-Seq. In summary, this study provides powerful experimental data for further exploring the yak liver development at different growth stages and a reference for in-depth understanding of yak liver growth and development process.
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    Personality assessment and sex differences of captive South China tiger ( Panthera tigris amoyensis)
    KONG Xuanmin, ZHANG Xueli, CHEN Siming, ZHANG Peng, DONG Guixin
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 24-33.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150573
    Abstract754)   HTML86)    PDF (1504KB)(674)       Save
    Personality research plays an important role in the ecological adaptation and ex situ conservation of wildlife. Surprisingly, personality traits of South China tiger ( Panthera tigris amoyensis), the most endangered tiger subspecies, have not been explored. In this paper, we used the personality characteristics evaluation method to assess 6 captive South China tigers, The diversity of personality characteristics of South China tigers of different genders was compared. and the novel object test was used to further verify the results of the personality characteristics evaluation method. The result showed three dimensions of personality traits. trusting-friendly, aggressive-dominant, and curious-adaptation. we also found that males had a higher score in aggressive-dominant than females. This study provides some research data for the delicate breeding management of South China tigers and provides references for the conservation and reintroduction of South China tigers.
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    New records of Sorex cansulus Thomas, 1912 in Sichuan, Qinghai and Shaanxi provinces
    HUANG Yunjia, TANG Keyi, WANG Xuming, WAN Tao, FU Changkun, WANG Qiong, CHEN Shunde, LIU Shaoying
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 118-124.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150569
    Abstract727)   HTML106)    PDF (13318KB)(720)       Save
    When examining the Sorex shrew samples collected between 2011 and 2018, we found 24 specimens from Sichuan (Shiqu, Jiuzhaigou, Pingwu, Heishui, Wenchuan, Maoxian, Kangding), Qinghai (Banma), and Shaanxi (Taibai Mountain) suspected to be a Gansu shrew Sorex cansulus. Based on morphological characteristics, skull measurement comparison, Kimura-2-parameter distance and Bayesian phylogenetic tree analysis, these specimens were confirmed to be Sorex cansulus. This is the first time that Sorex cansulus has been discovered in Sichuan, Qinghai, and Shaanxi provinces. This study further determines the distribution range and biological information of Sorex cansulus.
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    The energy budget of striped hamsters in response to food shortage at different temperatures
    Daliang HUO, Shasha LIAO, Jing CAO, Zhijun ZHAO
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 58-68.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150584
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    Food availability is one of the most important problems for animals in natural environments. The ‘metabolic rate conversion’ hypothesis suggests that animals can decrease their metabolic rate to reduce energy expenditure, which is an important energy strategy for coping with food shortage. However, the ‘metabolic rate conversion’ strategy of the non-hibernating small mammals to cope with food shortage at different ambient temperatures remains uncertain. To address this issue, adult male striped hamsters were deprived of food for 24 h, 36 h and 48 h, at cold (5.0℃), room (21.0℃) and high temperatures (32.5℃) and then refed ad libitum for 5 weeks. Abdominal temperature was measured using implanted i-button. The metabolic rate, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) were determined using open oxygen analysis system. Serum T3 and T4 levels were determined using radioimmunoassay technology. The results showed that body temperature significantly decreased at 5.0℃ and 21.0℃ following food deprivation compared to that at 32.5℃. The average metabolic rate over day and night, RMR, and NST significantly increased at cold temperature, and decreased at hot temperature, whereas they did not differ significantly between the groups of food deprivation and refeeding. The fat deposit significantly decreased following food deprivation, during which the rate of fat mobilization was higher at cold temperature than that at hot temperature. The fat deposit significantly increased following refeeding, which was considerably inhibited at cold temperature compared to that at hot temperature. The T3 and T4 levels did not significantly differ between the groups of food deprivation and refeeding. Consistent with the changes in metabolic rate, serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly affected by temperature, with increasing at cold temperature relative to that at hot temperature. It suggests that the striped hamsters have a similar metabolic rate at different temperatures during food shortage to that during refeeding period, inconsistent with the ‘metabolic rate conversion’ hypothesis. The food-deprived striped hamsters have higher metabolic rate at cold temperature to meet the energy requirements of body temperature regulation, within which the roles of thyroid hormones in stimulating heat production would be one of the most important mechanisms.

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    Effects of roads on the abundance and habitat of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in the Yellow River Source Zone of Sanjiangyuan National Park
    Huangqingdongzhi, CHEN Liuyang, LI Shangpeng, SUN Zhangyun, YANG Mingxin, ZHANG Dexi, LI Chengxian, MAO Ruirui, LI Zeyu, ZHANG Lixun
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 34-48.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150567
    Abstract719)   HTML97)    PDF (19893KB)(688)       Save
    We sought to understand the effects of roads on the populations and habitat of Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang) and Tibetan gazelle (Procapra picticaudata) in the Yellow River Source Zone of Sanjiangyuan National Park. We conducted a field survey to estimate population size, density and distribution of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in the region in autumn 2020 using a line transect sampling method. We then used the MaxEnt to assess habitat suitability of the two species under four different scenarios of road density and road type. The total length of the survey line was 1 320. 63 km, along which 2 231 Tibetan wild asses and 822 Tibetan gazelles were observed. The density of Tibetan wild ass was (1. 18 ±0. 34) individuals/km2 and the estimated abundance ranged from 2 400 to 7 632. The density of Tibetan gazelle was (0. 94 ±0. 14) individuals/km2 and the estimated abundance ranged from 1 765 to 3 219. MaxEnt predicted that the suitable habitat areas of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle were 3 641. 34 km2 and 2 525. 18 km2, accounting for 19. 2% and 13. 3% of the entire Yellow River Source Zone, respectively. Distance to low-grade roads, annual precipitation, altitude and normalized difference vegetation index were the most important factors affecting habitat suitability for Tibetan wild ass.Distance to low-grade roads, altitude, aspect and slope were the most important factors affecting habitat suitability for Tibetan gazelle. The overlapping suitable habitat area of the two species was 2 240. 15 km2, accounting for 61. 5% and 88. 7% of the suitable habitat of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle, respectively. The suitable habitats of Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle in autumn were mainly distributed in the central part of the Yellow River Source Zone. The road scenarios analysis indicated that:(1) the three scenarios including road variables resulted in varying degrees of habitat area loss and consequent population declines for both species when compared to the scenario with no roads. Scenarios with all road variables resulted in the smallest area of suitable habitat and the smallest populations for both species with 27. 2% and 42. 3% of suitable area lost for Tibetan wild ass and Tibetan gazelle respectively. (2) Different types of roads have different degrees of influence on the habitat area and populations of the two species. Low-grade roads cause greater habitat area loss and greater population declines for both species compared to highgrade roads. (3) The two species respond differently to road disturbance, with Tibetan gazelle suffering a greater loss of suitable habitat and experiencing a greater reduction in population size. This study provides evidence for ungulate conservation and roads managed on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by quantitatively assessing the effects of different types of roads on the habitats and populations of two ungulate species.
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    Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Guizhou Dashahe National Nature Reserve
    LI Qiaoming, GOU Wei, JI Chengpeng, XIAO Wenhong, CHEN Sikan, XIAO Zhishu
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 108-117.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150536
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    From December 2016 to August 2019, we set up 85 grids (1 km×1 km) and 114 camera-trapping stations to investigate the wildlife resources of mammals and birds in the Dashahe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou province, China. Our survey included 19 950 trap days and 10 767 independent pictures. We identified a total of 86 species from 35 families and 12 orders, including 25 species of mammals belonging to 14 families and 5 orders and 61 species of birds belonging to 21 families and 7 orders. Among them, 4 species were listed as Class Ⅰ and 19 species were listed as Class Ⅱ National Protected Wildlife in China, and 24 species were recorded for the first time in the Dashahe reserve. The most abundant mammal species based on the relative abundance index and grid occupancy were Muntiacus reevesi, Paguma larvata, and Sus scrofa. In addition, the most abundant bird species were Chrysolophus pictus, Tragopan temminckii, and Leiothrix argentauris. Our results provide basic information on the relative abundance of terrestrial wild mammals and birds for protection management and long-term monitoring in this reserve.
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    Effect of tannic acid on the antioxidant level and the expression of liver autophagy-related genes in Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii)
    FAN Ruiyang, WANG Huiyuan, WANG Daochen, DAI Xin, YANG Shengmei
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 76-84.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150577
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    Tannins are phenolic secondary metabolites that are present in various plants and have potential antioxidant properties. However, the effect of tannins on autophagy in animals remains unclear. In the present study, 4-week-old Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) were fed low and high doses of tannic acid (TA) solution for 9 weeks. The variations in serum antioxidant levels and the expression of liver autophagy-related genes in relation to the TA dose were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. TA had no evident effects on the rates of growth of body weight and liver index in the voles. The level of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in the high-dose TA group than in the control group, but the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expression levels of both Beclin1 and p62 in the liver were lower in the highdose TA group than in the control group. Levels of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) were higher in the high-dose TA group than in the control group, but the expression level of LC3A in the liver was lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. In both the low-dose and high-dose TA groups, the serum GSH-Px levels were higher in male voles than in female voles, and in the high-dose TA group, the serum CAT levels were also higher in male voles than in female voles. Our research demonstrates that certain doses of TA could improve antioxidant levels and reduce autophagy in the liver, but the response of the antioxidant system to TA was stronger in male voles than in female voles. Our findings suggest that low consumption of tannin from plants could improve the antioxidant capabilities of wild Brandt's voles, thereby benefiting their population.
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    Comparative on the expression of MC1R gene and the contents of UCP1, Hb and Mb of Eothenomys miletus at different altitudes from Hengduan Mountain region in winter
    HAN Chunyan, JIA Ting, WANG Yan, WANG Zhengkun, ZHU Wanlong, ZHANG Hao
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (1): 69-75.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150562
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    In order to explore the variations of coat color, physiological and blood indexes in Eothenomys miletus at different elevations in winter, samples were collected from north to south of Hengduan Mountain region in Deqin (DQ), Shangri-la (XGLL), Lijiang (LJ), Jianchuan (JC) and Ailao Mountain (ALS) from north to south, Gene sequence of melanocortin receptor1 ( MC1R) was amplified by PCR and the expression of MC1R gene in skin was determined by FQPCR. The contents of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). The results showed that the amplified MC1R fragment was a partial sequence of about 200 bp. MC1R gene expression in E. miletus from ALS and JC was significantly higher than from LJ, XGLL and DQ. Contents of UCP1 and Mb in E. miletus from DQ and XGLL were significantly higher than that those from ALS, JC and LJ. But Hb content showed no significant difference among the five regions. All of the above results showed that E. miletus could change the coat color by changing the expression of MC1R gene and increase the thermogenesis capacity by elevating the content of Mb and UCP1 in order to adapt to the environmental changes at different altitudes from Hengduan Mountain region.
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    Potential effect on migration of Asian elephants and human-elephant conflict by the Meng'a reservoir in Menghai County, Xishuangbanna
    LIU Jiaqi, WANG Yihan, ZHANG Lei, CUI Ning, LYU Ting, HUANG Yuan, DAI Rong, LI Zhengling, CHEN Mingyong
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (3): 227-239.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150578
    Abstract497)   HTML224)    PDF (7426KB)(440)       Save
    From January to December 2020, the population structure and migration routes of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in the proposed Meng' a reservoir in Menghai County in Xishuanbanna were investigated by using semi-structured interview method, tracking survey method, and UAV tracking survey method. In addition, the edible plants and habitat suitability of Asian elephants in this region were investigated and analyzed by using the quadrat method and 3S technology, in order to explore the potential impact of the proposed Meng' a reservoir on the migration of Asian elephants and human-elephant conflict. The results showed that:(1) The small population of Asian elephants living around the proposed Meng' a reservoir area is named the western Lancang River Asian elephant population or Xishuangbanna Menghai-Pu' er Lancang Asian elephant population, which only consists of only 19 elephants (10 ♂, 9 ♀). And two migration routes were used by Asian elephants across this area; (2) A total of 33 species representing 32 genera, 19 families, and 12 orders of foraging plants of Asian elephants were identified in this area, which could basically meet the feeding needs of this Asian elephant population; (3) The results of suitability analysis of ecological factors, such as altitude, slope, vegetation concealments and food resources showed that most of the areas (14. 61% of the total area was optimal habitat and 82. 05% of the total area was relative suitable habitat) could meet the basic living needs of this small Asian elephant population; (4) One of the two Asian elephant migration routes will be blocked by flooding water of the reservoir construction, forcing the herd to change its original migration route; (5) An entire area of habitat will be further cut and compressed, and vegetation in flooded areas will be permanently destroyed; (6) When the food resources cannot meet the survival needs of Asian elephants, they may choose to enter the agricultural areas where they can obtain a large amount of food in a short time to get food crops and cash crops in a short time. With the increase of number of people and traffic flow, the chance for Asian elephants to meet people will also greatly increase. The analysis suggests that the Meng' a reservoir may not only block one of the two migration routes of Asian elephants but also lead to more serious human-elephant conflict. We suggest that effective conservation and management measures should be taken in the process of reservoir design and construction to reduce the negative impact on the Asian elephants and their habitat. Reservoir construction and management departments and forestry and grassland management departments should strengthen monitoring and early warning of Asian elephant activities to avoid casualties and greater economic and property losses caused by Asian elephant accidents.
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    Impacts of human interference on the potential distribution of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys by MaxEnt model
    Tianlu QIAN, Shujie QIN, Zhaoning WU, Changbai XI, Jiechen WANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 349-361.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150608
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    Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) are rare and precious primates, endemic to China. Predicting the habitat range, evaluating the influence of human activities, and assessing conservation gaps are important for the conservation of this species. Based on 78 occurrence records of Yunnan snub-nosed monkey and 11 environmental variables (including 7 natural variables and 4 human variables), we use the maximum entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) and spatial analysis technology to construct potential suitable habitat models for Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys with and without human interference. Travel big data was used to estimate human travel density and included in the analyses as one of the human variables. The results showed that: (1) The model has achieved an accurate prediction. The human travel density properly reflects the human interferences on habitat. (2) The area of highly suitable habitat for Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys is 3 487.28 km2. The four main factors that affect the potential distribution of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys are altitude, annual precipitation, human travel density, and distance to roads. (3) Human activities have a negative impact on habitat, among which human travel density has the strongest impact. Human interferences lead to a 9.32% decrease of suitable habitats compared to that with natural environment only. 78.8% of the study area is under the influence of human activities. (4) Three of 15 existing habitat patches of Yunnan snub-nosed monkey groups are facing serious human interference while having high suitability, which can be key conservation areas. The habitat suitability curves become stable when the distance to residents and roads is 2 500 m or further, indicating a potential buffer distance in species conservation. It is of practical significance for conservation to reduce the intensity of human disturbance in these areas.

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    Camera-trapping survey on large and medium-sized mammal diversity in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains
    Hong CHEN, Shengnan JI, Kan ZHANG, Dayong WANG, Jie HU, Yanhong LI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 461-470.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150611
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    Regional species diversity monitoring and assessment are an important basis for the design of conservation and management strategies. To assess the status of large and medium-sized mammal diversity in the Xiaoxiangling Mountains, a baseline survey using infrared camera traps was conducted in Sichuan Yele Provincial Nature Reserve (YLPNR), Sichuan Liziping National Nature Reserve (LZPNNR), and their adjacent areas from January 2018 to November 2020. In total, 86 grids (1 km × 1 km each) were selected for monitoring according to habitat type and landform features, with one camera placed in each grid. A total of 19 982 camera-days of data, including 3 304 independent photos, were collected, and 18 mammal species belonging to 4 orders and 12 families were identified. Among them, 3 species are listed as first-class National Key Protected wildlife (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Moschus berezovskii and Catopuma temminckii), and 10 species are listed as second-class National Key Protected Wildlife, including Ursus thibetanus, Ailurus styani, and Rusa unicolor. Rusa unicolor is a new record in this area. The five species with the highest relative abundance index are Elaphodus cephalophus, Capricornis milneedwardsii, Sus scrofa, Martes flavigula and Arctonyx collaris. Due to differences in area size and altitudinal range, there are some differences in the composition and relative abundance of large and medium?sized mammals between YLPNR and LZPNNR. In addition, grazing is the main human disturbance in the two reserves of the Xiaoxiangling Mountains. We suggest that the nature reserve authorities should strengthen management to minimize the impact of grazing on wildlife.

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    Giant panda pose estimation method based on high resolution net
    Yu QI, Han SU, Rong HOU, Peng LIU, Peng CHEN, Hangxing ZANG, Zhihe ZHANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 451-460.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150639
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    Long-term behavioral monitoring of captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can help animal managers better understand the panda’s physiological cycle and health status in a timely manner, and help breeding facilities quickly take corresponding husbandry actions to improve breeding management. At present, neither animal managers nor scientists can monitor giant pandas 24 hours a day and obtain corresponding behavioral information on time. Accurate animal pose estimation is an important factor in animal behavior research and is also the basis for many downstream applications. Understanding the pose of giant pandas can greatly promote the research of panda behavior and improve its conservation and management. In order to improve the accuracy of giant panda pose estimation in complex environments, this paper proposed a pose estimation method based on the high-resolution network HRNet-32. To solve the problem of large-scale differences in different parts of the giant pandas, an atrous spatial pyramid pooling module was introduced in HRNet-32, which used dilated convolution with different dilated rates to form a similar pyramid form, so as to capture multi-scale information while enhancing the feature’s receptive field. Meanwhile, the giant panda pose estimation was regarded as a homogeneous multi-task learning problem, the joint points of the giant panda were grouped, and the part-based multi-branch structure was introduced to learn the representations specific to each part group. The results of several comparison experiments show that the model proposed in this paper, PCK@0.05, had a high detection accuracy (81.51%). The method proposed in this paper can provide technical support for the behavioral analysis and health assessment of giant pandas.

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    Timing and synchrony of births in reintroduced Père David’s deer ( Elaphurus davidianus)
    Qinghui MENG, Chao BAI, Yuan SONG, Yunfang SHAN, Junfang LI, Shumiao ZHANG, Jiade BAI, Zhenyu ZHONG, Chenglin ZHANG, Xiuxiang MENG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 379-386.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150462
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    The sustained reproduction is an important landmark of successful adaptation of reintroduced species to climate recovery in the original extinction area. The study of synchronous population reproduction before and after reintroduction can provide accurate breeding prediction information and scientific basis for reintroduction managers. In this paper, we collected the birthing data of the reintroduced Père David’s deer population in Beijing in 1987, 1997, 2007, and 2017. The earliest birthing day of each year was used as a baseline to evaluate the delay in birth of reintroduced individuals and to measure the synchronization rate. ANOVA was used to analyze the effects of temperature, precipitation, air humidity, and light on the birthing timing pattern of reintroduced Père David’s deer. The results showed that, (1) After reintroduction, the annual birth rhythm of the population initially oscillated, then gradually reverted, and finally remained in a relatively stable state. After 85 years (from extinction to reintroduction), the first birthing of the new population in Beijing was delayed by 35 ? 42 days compared with that of Woburn Abbey population. Reintroduction of colonization stage: the birth rhythm of the new population was advanced annually. Population propagation stage: the rhythm of birth was delayed annually. Population recovery stage: the rhythm of birth was re-back slightly year by year and finally remained stable. (2) Deer parturition has more intense periodic timing and synchronization. In the first year after reintroduction, it took 18, 14, and 5 days to achieve 0 ? 25%, 25% ? 50%, and 50% ? 75% of the delivery rate, respectively. The relocation stage, it took 41, 19, and 11 days to achieve the rate of synchronization 0 ? 25%, 25% ? 50% to 50% ? 75%, respectively. In the re-expanding population stage, it took 45, 10, and 9 days to achieve the rate of synchronization 0 ? 25%, 25% ? 50% to 50% ? 75%, respectively. In the restoration phase, it took 24, 20, and 11 days to achieve the rate of synchronization 0 ? 25%, 25% ? 50% to 50% ? 75%, respectively.(3) Cumulative light and accumulated temperature had significant effects on the birth initiation of Père David’s deer but had no relationship with the birth synchronization. The delivery began when the accumulated temperature reached (2748.34 ± 157.69) ℃ and the accumulated light reached (3684.77 ± 514.26) h. (4) There was a correlation between the peak period of birth and aboveground biomass per unit area of reintroduced land. Judging by the rhythm of birth data, the new population has adapted to the climate of the reintroduction site. The number of non-synchronous birth individuals increased annually, but the total span of the delivery period did not extend. Since 1997, the population has had a 30% non-synchronous delivery average year. Therefore, analysis based on birth data reveals that after 37 years of reintroduction, the new population has recovered its adaptation to the habitation where it went extinct 120 years ago.

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    The effects of affiliative relationship on aggressive behavior in Tibetan macaques
    Tong ZHANG, Xi WANG, Qixin ZHANG, Jinhua LI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 370-378.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150644
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    Affiliative and agonistic behaviors determine the social structure and its systems in animal groups, which are manifested as differences in proximity between individuals. However, it is unclear whether differences in affinity affect the intensity of conflict and aggression. Thus, we conducted a study on one group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana, Yulinkeng, YA1) from September 2020 to May 2021 in Anhui, China. We used focal animal and behavioral sampling methods to record the proximity, grooming, and aggressive behavior of macaques. We correlated the proximity and grooming with aggressive behavior of those matrices, and ran GLMM models to explore the factors that might affect aggressive interaction among individuals. The results showed that the greater the proximity index was, the longer the grooming duration between group individuals had. The matrix based on the proximity index was positively correlated with the total number of aggression, the number of mild aggression, and the number of intense aggression. Individuals with closer affiliative relationships had more often and more heavily aggression towards each other. When comparing differences between sex, we found the frequency and intensity of aggression among females were less than among males. These results suggest that the close proximity could increase the likelihood of grooming and aggression between macaques and that the social relationship between females is more stable. We did not find that the macaques adjust the intensity of aggression according to their affinity. This study provided theoretical support for understanding the social relationship and social structure of multi-male and multi-female Tibetan macaques.

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    The first image record of Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) in Yunnan Province
    Guangxu HUANG, Junjie LI, Yinlei DU, Wen ZHANG, Zhipang HUANG
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 471-474.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150640
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    In China, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is mainly distributed in the northeast, north, northwest, and southwest regions. It is one of the second-class national key protected wild animals and is listed as an Endangered species in the Red List of Vertebrates in China. Historically, there was some evidence that Eurasian lynx occurred in Yunnan Province, such as skins, skulls, and community interviews, while there was no field photographic evidence. In order to carry out a survey of animal diversity in Diqing Prefecture, Yunnan, China for the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program, we set 24 camera traps in Geza Township, Shangri-La City, from August 10, 2020, to September 14, 2021. On February 28, 2021, a video image of a Eurasian lynx was recorded by camera traps in Geza Township, Shangri-La City, Diqing Prefecture, Yunnan. This is the first video image record of a wild Eurasian lynx in Yunnan Province, confirming the species’ presence in Yunnan, which provides the basic data for the distribution of lynx in China.

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    Status of human-Asiatic black bear conflicts in surrounding communities of Baoshan area in Yunnan Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve
    Yunrui JI, Liushuan ZHANG, Xiangyuan HUANG, Jianyan TANG, Zengshuai LIU, Jiahua LI, Weichun YANG, Diqiang LI, Fang LIU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 387-397.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150623
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    Conflicts between Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and humans are widespread in Asia. In the surrounding communities of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve (GLGNR), conflicts between human and Asiatic black bear have seriously threatened the livelihood and safety of residents, thus studying the patterns of human?Asiatic black bear conflicts is the basis for understanding the underlying mechanism of conflicts and proposing mitigation measures. In 2019, we conducted a semi-structured interview survey on human?Asiatic black bear conflicts in the surrounding communities of Baoshan area of GLGNR. The results showed that crop raiding (n = 199 events) was the most common damage caused by Asiatic black bears reported by interviewees based on occurrence frequency, followed by livestock depredation (n = 43), beehives damage (n = 40), and attacking human (n = 5). However, predation of livestock by Asiatic black bear caused the largest economic losses (799 200 RMB), followed by crop damages (309 300 RMB) and beehive damages (298 790 RMB). These conflicts mainly occurred from June to August. The characteristics of human-Asiatic black bear conflicts varied between the eastern and western Gaoligong Mountains. In the eastern area of GLGNR, crop-raiding was the major type of human-Asiatic black bear conflicts, while damage to beehives was the most serious conflict type in the western area. In addition, residents living in the western Gaoligong Mountains had a more negative attitudes towards Asiatic black bears than villagers in the eastern area. However, we found that neither negative attitudes nor occurrence of bear damages led to retaliatory killing of bears by local villagers. Moreover, 72.0% of the interviewees in the surrounding communities in GLGNR reported that they had never heard of the poaching of Asiatic black bears in the local area, while 98.6% of them never heard about bear products trade. Additionally, they had no willingness to use bear products in the future. We analyzed the current situation of human?Asiatic black bear conflicts in the surrounding communities of Baoshan area of GLGNR, and explored the spatial and temporal patterns of human?Asiatic black bear conflicts. Our study provides a scientific basis for future work on mitigation and management of human?Asiatic black bear conflicts in Gaoligongshan Mountains.

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    Density estimation and suitable habitat prediction of Indo-Pacific finless porpoise in the Beibu Gulf
    Xiangyao MENG, Huazhi WANG, Yu ZHOU, Hongke ZHANG, Ying QIAO, Bingyao CHEN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 362-369.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150634
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    There is little information about the Indo-Pacific finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in China. Between 2018 and 2020, we conducted boat surveys in the inshore of Guangxi Hepu State Dugong National Natural Reserve and offshore of Weizhou Island waters using the line-transect sampling method. The density of finless porpoise estimated using DISTANCE software in Dugong National Natural Reserve was 0.273 (0.133 - 0.561) ind./km2, with a population of 88 (95%CI: 43 - 181). The population density in Weizhou Island was 0.100 (0.048 - 0.210) ind./km2, with a mean population of 137 (95%CI: 65 - 286). We also used MaxEnt software to analyze the distribution of suitable habitats for finless porpoises in the Beibu Gulf. The AUC values of the MaxEnt model were 0.980 and 0.927 for the training and test sets, respectively, indicating good model performance. The model indicates that offshore distance and water depth are the main factors affecting the habitat distribution of Indo-Pacific finless porpoise. It was predicted that the northeastern coastal area of Beibu Gulf and the western side of Hainan were the most suitable habitat for the finless porpoise. The habitat area with suitability greater than 0.5 was 14 630.62 km2. From 2018 to 2020, the area of suitable habitat for Indo-Pacific finless porpoise decreased significantly by 40% compared with that in 2013. According to the density of the two groups and suitable habitat area, it was estimated that there are about 1 463 - 3 994 Indo-Pacific finless porpoises in Beibu Gulf. Thus, the number of finless porpoises in the Beibu Gulf is relatively high. Adequate attention should be paid to the protection of the Indo-Pacific finless porpoise. We suggest strengthening the protection of the marine ecosystem, restoring fish resources, controlling anthropogenic activities, especially fishing boats, and establishing new nature reserves.

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    Effects of hibernation on cecal microbiota in Daurian ground squirrel
    Min MAO, Ming YANG, Xinyu LIU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 420-431.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150622
    Abstract97)   HTML2)    PDF (4281KB)(160)       Save

    The diversity and composition of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals are affected by seasonal changes and fasting during hibernation. In order to examine the seasonal changes of the cecal microbiota of Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus), we analyzed the diversity, composition, and function of cecal microbiota from six groups of fattening stage (Initial fattening, Rapid fattening, Finished fattening) and hibernation stage (Early hibernation, Late hibernation, Arousal) using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing technology. In addition, the relationship between physiological characteristics and the composition and function of cecal microbiota was explored by redundancy analysis (RDA). The cecal microbiota was mainly composed of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia. Compared with other periods, the relative abundance of Firmicutes decreased and that of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia increased in Early hibernation. The Chao1 and ACE indices in Initial fattening, Rapid fattening, and Early hibernation were significantly lower than those in the Arousal, and the Simpson index in Finish fattening was significantly lower than that in Rapid fattening (P < 0.05) calculated by alpha diversity. Significant seasonal clustering of the cecal microbiota was found through the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of the weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance matrix. The butanoate metabolism and other metabolic pathways were enriched in fattening stage, and nitrogen metabolism and other related pathways were concentrated in hibernation stage as shown by PICRUSt analysis. The physiological characteristics at different stages were significantly correlated with the composition and function of cecal microbiota. In conclusion, it is indicated that hibernation profoundly affects the diversity and relative abundance of cecal microbiota. The changes in the composition and function of cecal microbiota play an important role in regulating the physiological metabolism, which can help Daurian ground squirrel adapt to seasonal environmental changes.

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    Expression of MTNR1a and MTNR1b genes on HPG axis of male plateau zokor during the breeding and the non‑breeding seasons
    Kang AN, Mingfang BAO, Baohui YAO, Yukun KANG, Yuchen TAN, Yanli WANG, Junhu SU
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 410-419.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150605
    Abstract91)   HTML2)    PDF (8093KB)(63)       Save

    The plateau zokor (Eospalax baileyi) is an endemic subterranean rodent species with limited exposure light. Previous study has shown seasonal differences in levels of melatonin secretion in plateau zokors. However, the expression pattern of melatonin receptor genes on hypothalamic?pituitary?gonadal (HPG) axis is not clear. In this study, q–PCR was employed to detect the relative expression levels of genes mRNA of melatonin receptor 1a (MTNR1a) and melatonin receptor 1b (MTNR1b) in hypothalamus, pituitary, and testis of male plateau zokors during the breeding (May) and non?breeding seasons (September). The location of MTNR1a and MTNR1b in testis was determined by immunohistochemical technology, and immunohistochemical positive evaluation was conducted in Image Pro Plus software. The results showed that the relative expression levels of MTNR1a in hypothalamus and pituitary were significantly higher during the breeding season (P < 0.05), while there was no significant difference in the relative expression levels of MTNR1b in different seasons (P > 0.05). The relative expression levels of MTNR1a and MTNR1b in testis during the non?breeding season were higher than that during the breeding season (P < 0.01). The positive signal of MTNR1a in testis was observed in all types of cells except elongated spermatid during the breeding season and in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and spermatogonia during the non?breeding season. The positive signal of MTNR1b in testis was observed in all types of cells except spermatogonia and elongated spermatid during the breeding season and in Leydig cells and Sertoli cells during the non?breeding season. The average optical density values of immunopositive signals in MTNR1a and MTNR1b during the non?breeding season were significantly higher compared with the breeding season (P < 0.01). The expression patterns of MTNR1a and MTNR1b on the HPG axis of male plateau zokor during the breeding and the non?breeding seasons revealed the potential role of melatonin in seasonal reproduction regulation.

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    Fecal microbiota diversity analysis of the diarrheal sub-adult Qaidam horses and biomarkers screening
    Xiaoqi WANG, Wenjing HAO, Zhichao ZHANG, Jing HAN, Rujing WANG, Ziyuan DUAN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 432-441.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150637
    Abstract86)   HTML5)    PDF (3799KB)(69)       Save

    The study aims to compare the difference in diversity and composition of fecal microbiota between healthy and diarrheal sub-adult Qaidam horses. We analyzed feces of healthy (n = 13) and diarrheal (n = 3) sub-adult Qaidam horses based on 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, and determined the absolute abundance of related differential bacteria genera by real-time qPCR. The results indicated that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were the dominant phyla in feces from both healthy and diarrheal Qaidam horses. Compared to healthy Qaidam horses, the fecal microbial Alpha diversity was significantly lower (P < 0.05), the relative abundance of Firmicutes was relatively lower (P < 0.05), and the ralative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in diarrheal Qaidam horses. It was then deduced that the dysbiosis of these two phyla (Clostridium, Prevotella, Fibrobacter, etc.) in microecology might play an important role in Qaidam horses’ diarrhea. Additionally, 12 biomarkers (feature genera), such as Methanobrevibacter, Fibrobacter, Paludibacter, Carnobacterium and Elusimicrobium, which had significant influence on the difference of fecal bacteria composition between the two groups, were screened by a machine learning algorithm (random forest). The study compared the characteristics of fecal microbial changes in healthy and diarrheal Qaidam horses and provided a data basis for the diarrhea of livestock in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

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    Research progress of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer in wild animals
    Shigang GU, Yanhui ZHAI, Chao XU, Dawei YU, Zhiqiang HAN, Quanmin ZHAO, Xiangpeng DAI
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 442-450.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150642
    Abstract83)   HTML4)    PDF (5445KB)(105)       Save

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is one of the most promising research directions in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). It has a wide application in the production of transgenic animals, the breeding of improved varieties, the protection of endangered animals, the regeneration of extinct species, as well as the breeding of wildlife and the protection of biodiversity. In this article, we review the research progress and technical barriers of interspecific nuclear transfer technology in cats, canines, bovids, swine and peccaries, and provide theoretical and technical guidance for further improvement of utilization of iSCNT technology in wild animal reproduction, breeding and diversity protection.

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    Genetic diversity and demographic history of Siberian flying squirrel ( Pteromys volans) population in northern Zhangguangcai Mountains, Heilongjiang, China
    Xinmin TIAN, Mingdong LIAN, Yaqi SONG, Xiaohui LIU, Mengping YANG, Hong CHEN
    ACTA THERIOLOGICA SINICA    2022, 42 (4): 398-409.   DOI: 10.16829/j.slxb.150629
    Abstract73)   HTML4)    PDF (3369KB)(51)       Save

    The Siberian flying squirrel (Pteromys volans) is an arboreal, nocturnal, and gliding rodent. It plays an important role in forest seed dispersal and ecosystem balance maintenance. We used three molecular markers, namely mtDNA Cytb, control region, and nDNA microsatellites, to conduct genetic diversity and demographic history analyses of the flying squirrel population in the north Zhangguangcai Mountains, Heilongjiang Province. The mean haplotype diversity based on the complete sequence of Cyt b gene (1 140 bp) was 0.909 and the mean nucleotide diversity was 0.616%. The mean haplotype diversity based on the complete sequence of the control region (1 066 bp) was 0.945 and the mean haplotype diversity was 1.698%. The mean number of alleles in the population detected by 12 microsatellite loci was 13.167, the observed heterozygosity was 0.727, the expected heterozygosity was 0.864 and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.159. Our results indicated a high level of genetic diversity in the flying squirrel population, but low heterozygosity and some level of inbreeding. No evidence of population genetic bottleneck or within-population genetic differentiation was found. However, high proportion of rare haplotypes (≥ 60%), low frequency of alleles, and inbreeding indicate a risk of declining genetic diversity in the Siberian flying squirrel population in the future. It is suggested that conservation efforts for Siberian flying squirrels in this region should be improved. The phylogenetic relationship of Cyt b haplotypes confirmed that there are three major lineages of Siberian flying squirrel occupying the Far Eastern, northern Eurasia, and the island of Hokkaido. The haplotypes of Zhangguangcai and Daxing’an Mountains in this study are part of the lineage Far Eastern.

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